Memorie.al publishes the unknown story of the Anti-Communist Movement in the Lyceum of Shkodra in the early post-war years, told by one of its former high school students, Mr. Ahmet Bushati, who tells how some anti-communist groups were created in that city, such as the organization “Albanian Endeavor”, headed by Bardhosh Dani, where the founding group meeting was held at the home of Nihat Bakalli and included: Ismail Baruti, John Mark Ndoj. Viktor Luka, Et’hem Bakalli, Nihat Bakalli, Migrim Dani, Rrok Jubani, Xhevat Gjyrezi, Nexhip Osmani, Bardh Shiroka, Njazi Uruci, Injac Kujxhia, Ferit Myftia, Pjerin Vata, etc. So was the Social Democrat group led by Mark Shllaku, which included Martin Camaj, Kolec Pikolin, Marin Shyti, Isa Beqiri, etc., and a few years later that top group was re-created: Peter Filip (Arbnori) Adnan Muka, Gjovalin Preka, and Bep Jubani. All these anti-Communist groups carried out concrete actions from 1945 to 1953, writing slogans on the walls of the gymnasium or distributing tracts with anti-Communist content, and as a result, about 60 high school students were arrested and imprisoned. were sentenced to death and executed: Bardhosh Dani, Brahim Senduti, Mark Caca and Asim Rusi.
“During the years 1945-1953 in the Lyceum of our city of Shkodra, or as it was later called the ‘State Gymnasium’, some anti-communist groups were established which carried out their activities both in the premises of that school and outside. This anti-Communist movement which in the early postwar years laid strong foundations in that gymnasium, not only did it not have a single leadership, but the various groups that were created there from time to time had nothing to do with each other. the other The only thing that united them all was the hatred for communism ”, The man who speaks and testifies for Memorie.al is Mr. Ahmet Bushati, the former Chairman of the Shkodra City Council in 1992-1996 and the former the student of that gymnasium, who in the early postwar years, turned into a stronghold of the Anti-Communist Movement. Bushat himself, who while studying at the banks of that gymnasium, participated in that movement and was one of the main organizers of the nationalist youth of that school, proves to us a part of its history, bringing in time some of the events of that period, which are still kept fresh in his memory even though more than seven decades have passed since then.
Creating the organization, “Albanian Effort”
The anti-Communist movement in the Lyceum of Shkodra, which has its origins since the war, continued from 1945 until 1953 when members of the last anti-communist group with students who had left that school was arrested. Regarding this movement which resumed in that city’s gymnasium (shortly after the end of the war) with the creation of the “Albanian Endeavor” organization led by Bardhosh Dani and Ethem Bakalli, Mr. Ahmet recalls: “In October 1947 at the house of Nihat Bakalli in the city of Shkodra was formed an anti-communist organization called “Albanian Endeavor”, which was headed by Bardhosh Dani and Ethem Bakalli. About the formation of that organization I was informed by Bardhosh Dani, who after meeting me said: Ahmet, we are young and have the right experience, I need someone to guide us. I thought of you. ” After Bardhosh Dan’s words, I hesitated to respond immediately, and in order to gain time, I began to ask him about the activity they were doing. After he spoke to me about their activities for a long time, he told me about a decision they had made in those days that involved writing slogans against “popular power” on the walls of the gymnasium. I opposed that action because they would be discovered by the State Security, which had its people in the gymnasium, and as a result, the whole mission they had set themselves would fail. Following my advice, Bardhoshi obeyed and promised me that at least temporarily he would not take that action. After this conversation with Bardhosh, I agreed to work with him and his group, but set some conditions. At first, I refused to be the Chairman of the Group and asked that no one in his group ever learn the relationship I had with him. After this compromise, I became one of the principal coordinators who maintained the connections between the gymnasium students and the leader of that group that was Bardhosh Dani. To extend the activity of that organization to other cities, I talked to Xhevat Quku, whom I recommended to Ramadan Kthupi from Durres (Security never discovered) to expand the group in that city, but my connections with Bardhosh I didn’t tell Dan. A few days after the meeting I had with Bardhosh, on the walls of the gymnasium of Shkodra, the slogans of “Down with Communism”, “Outside the rubble” were written in black. After that, I immediately met with Bardhosh and told him why they had done it, but he justified it by telling me that he could not stop his friends from doing so because they were spiritually prepared for it. action “. Not even four or five days after that event, I happened to warn Bardhosh: two of my friends, Remzi and Xhevat Quku, were arrested along with them and Osja, Xhevat’s younger brother, ”recalls Ahmet Bushati. at the time when the anti-communist organization called “Albanian Endeavor” was formed.
The activity of the Organization
What was the activity that the anti-Communist organization “Albanian Endeavor” carried out afterward and who were the persons who participated in the actions it carried out? Regarding this, Ahmet Bushati recalls: “The activity of the anti-communist organization“ Albanian Effort ”which was created under the leadership of Bardhosh Dan was very intense and intense. The first action that its members carried out was to write anti-communist slogans on the walls of the gymnasium. The ink with which the slogans were written was prepared by Mysret Muka at Visho Barbullushi’s shop. Following this action, the State Security came under the umbrella of that organization through its men, and as a result, some of the members of that anti-communist group consisting mainly of graduates were arrested. After these arrests, the situation in our gymnasium became so aggravated by Security surveillance that the main organizers leading it were forced to expand their anti-communist activity outside the walls of that school. Thus, in January 1948, with the mediation of Victor Luke, this organization became closely associated with the social-democratic group headed by Mark Shllaku. At a time when the State Security surveillance and surveillance situation was aggravated, Bardhosh Dani with his two friends; Brahim Sendut and Mark Caca decided to cross the border and escape Albania. So in January 1948, as they were crossing the border, they were surrounded by pursuit forces and all three were killed. This assassination severely damaged the organization “Albanian Endeavor”, which at the time was forced to reorganize to elect the people who would take over its leadership, and meetings on this occasion were held at the homes of Alfons Radovan and Victor Luke. After the reorganization of that organization, the first actions began to take place which consisted of the suppression and distribution of various tracts propagating against the communist regime that had been established in Albania. The first tract that this organization printed and distributed was the one on November 28, 1948, the second tract was printed a year later on November 28, 1949, and the third was printed on April 7, 1950. the third that was suppressed by that organization, inter alia, stated: “November 29, 1944, which is celebrated by the Communists as the day of the liberation of Albania, has not changed much since the day of April 7, 1939, when Albania became was attacked and occupied by fascist Italy. ” At the time, these tracts were printed with the exile of Dani’s typewriter, but since his machine could not cope with all that the organization needed, he thought of another typewriter and of finding and her insurance was assigned to Zef Vila and Agostin Dema. The two managed to find the typewriter by taking it secretly to the Shkodra Museum Directorate and then headed straight to Mirdita at John Mark Ndoj. These tracts, which were constantly conceived by Et’hem Bakalli, were then distributed to Shkodra, Kelmend, Mirdita, and Tirana, and one of the persons who carried out that work was Ndoc Ljarja, who was at that time a pupil in the “7 November” Technique. in Tirana. The “Albanian Endeavor” organization at that time was able to distribute the elegance of Prek Calit in Shkodra highlands, which he brought from Vukël village, Zihni Baja, who was a teacher there. After some time from the day the organization was created, I was arrested and ended up in the Shkodra investigation. While I was in prison I learned that Bardhosh Dan had interrupted the group’s meeting and activity for some time, but it did not last long because he resumed it by telling the band members: “As long as we are not suffering it shows that Ahmet Bushati is resisting the investigator, and we need to continue the work we have started ”, recalled Ahmeti when Bardhosh Dani resumed his anti-communist activity with the organization“ Albanian Effort”.
Members of the “Albanian Endeavor” organization
Who were the people who participated in the anti-communist organization “Albanian Endeavor” and what was their fate? Regarding this, Ahmet Bushati testifies: “The students who were grouped in that organization both at the time led by Bardhosh Dani and after his assassination were: Ismail Baruti, John Mark Ndoj. Viktor Luka, Et’hem Bakalli, Nihat Bakalli, Migrim Dani, Rrok Jubani, Xhevat Gjyrezi, Nexhip Osmani, Bardh Shiroka, Njazi Uruci, Injac Kujxhia, Ferit Myftia, Pjerin Vata, who were all arrested at different times and were sentenced to prison. And the members of that organization that we’re able to escape at that time were: Zef Hila, Ali Llukaci and Lec Vasia. Also, members of that organization that were subsequently arrested were Ramadan Lumani and Rrik Prendushi, and Carlet Luke was exiled. Members of the organization who managed to escape without being arrested at the time were: Agustin Dema, Sheuki Anamali, Sheuki Mati, Gjovalin Ujka, Rrik Kraja, Ramadan Sokoli, Shefik Jubica, Beqir Sukniqi, and Hilmi Hoxha. Members of that organization, such as Terezina Baba, were also expelled from the school. (one of the most prominent girls of “Albanian Endeavor”) Emil Prenushi, Suzana Kraja, Gjovalin Koci, Kolec Simoni, Rrik Kraja, Çiljeta Simoni, Gjystina Kapedani, Alfred Marashi, Gjyljana Misloci, Madalena Misloci, Lali Glasovi, Albina Marashi (daughter) of Llesh Marashi), Anica Maloku, Terezina Dajçi, Gjina Dajçi, Rexhina Kola and Marjeta Kiçi. During that time, in addition to the activities of these members of the Albanian Endeavor organization, there were some dormitories in the state gymnasium which were closely associated with the Communist Party and devotedly performed its work as P.F., K.O., A.U, etc. ”, recalled Ahmeti members of Shkodra’s anti-communist gymnasium organization.
Other groups and professors
How did the Anti-Communist Movement go on in the Shkodra Gymnasium and were other groups formed after the arrest of members of the “Albanian Endeavor” group? In this regard, Ahmet Bushati testifies: “Even after the arrest of a large number of those students who were part of the anti-communist organization“ Albanian Endeavor ”, the anti-communist movement in our gymnasium did not cease its activity. At the time, besides that organization in the city of Shkodra, there was also the Social-Democrat group led by Mark Shllaku who was later arrested and sentenced to death. Kolec Piccolini, who was associated with the fugitives in the Mirdita Mountains, was also part of that group at the time. The chaplain was captured and after being sentenced to death, the sentence was returned to life in prison. He then escaped from prison and ended up in Albania in the US. Martin Shyti was also a member of the Social-Democrat group, who, though able to escape the investigation, could not be freed because he was killed by border guards in the Oblica area while trying to flee abroad. Another member of this group was Martin Camaj, who after escaping from Albania to Yugoslavia, settled in Germany where he gained great fame as a writer. Other members of this group were Isa Beqiri who was arrested and suffered in prison. After the Social-Democrat grouping, another anti-communist group was formed, which was not discovered by the State Security organs and its members were not arrested at the time. The composition of these groups was Peter Filip (Arbnori) Adnan Muka, Gjovalin Preka and Bep Jubani. After these the last group to be discovered was the 1953 one with Ali Spahi and Llesh Topalli. This group consisting of former high school students from Shkodra marked the end of the anti-communist groups of Shkodra gymnasium, who fought for eight years without interrupting their activity against the communist regime in Albania. Throughout the eight-year activity of these anti-Communist groups that emerged from the ranks of Shkodra high school students, over sixty students were arrested and ended up in communist regime prisons, and four others such as Bardhosh Dani, Brahim Senduti, Mark Caca and Asim Rusi were sentenced to death and executed. from the communist regime ”, recalls Ahmet Bushati regarding his former high school friends in the city of Shkodra.
Professors who supported the Anti-Communist Movement
But in their anti-communist activity the students of the Lyceum of Shkodra received a little help from some of their professors in that school. Regarding this, Ahmet Bushati recalls: “Throughout the eight-year anti-communist activity performed by our gymnasium students, we also had great help from our esteemed professors, such as Preng Kacinari, Qemal Draçini, Prof Fundo, Kol Alimhilli, Gaspr Jakova, Hydajet Ceka, Kolë, Ndoc Kamsi, Filip and Gjina Ndoci, Menduh Agolli, Abdyl e Eqerem Rusi, Adem Bazhdari, Zyhdi Sokoli, Tomor Dani (Secretary of the school), etc. ”concludes his story on the Anti-Communist Movement of the Gymnasium Shkodra, Ahmet Bushati, one of the former students of that famous school who say Shkodra “has left a good name for it’s.