Memorie.al publishes some unknown documents extracted from the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the Anti-Fascist National Liberation War and the former Central Committee of the ALP), which belong to the years 1942-1945, where it is about Ludovik Nikaj , originally from the city of Shkodra and living in Tirana, where he worked as an electro-technician, one of the young communists of the first hours, who on May 2, 1942, as he had gone to the city of Shkodra together with his wife, Qefsere Bekaj, was arrested by Italian forces and taken to the police station for questioning, in connection with his activities in the ranks of the Communist Party, but during that time he was held in solitary confinement in a cell. , by order of the Communist Circle of Shkodra, his elimination was decided, as it was suspected that he had shown the houses and bases where the communists were sheltered, as well as the names of the main leaders of the Communist Party. How the action of the guerrilla units of the city of Shkodra led by Perlat Rexhepi (‘People’s Hero’) was carried out, firing with bombs and hand grenades the building of the Questura where Ludovik was kept isolated and his transfer from the Italian authorities to Italy , placing him in an internment camp near Modena. Ludovik’s return to Albania after some requests he made to the Albanian military mission in Rome and his request to meet with Enver Hoxha, who refused to wait for him and his death sentence by the Supreme Military Court in Tirana, after the accusations made against him, such as: “provocateur, SIM agent and traitor of the SNP”, who had told the Italians about the bases where Qemal Stafa, Koci Xoxe, Perlat Rexhepi, Ali Demi, Beqir Minxhozi were hiding, Gjystina Sata, etc. The complete file of the trial against Ludovik Nikaj, about which Enver Hoxha has written at length in his books and for which the film “Decision” was made by the Kinostudio “Shqipëria e Re” of that time, as well as the testimonies of his nephew , Luigj Nikaj (Kastrioti), who points out that all the accusations against his uncle were mounted by the senior leadership of the Communist Party, in order to cover the behind the scenes they had done to each other during the war, as it was the murder of Qemal Stafa, etc.!
It is the period of the Italian occupation of the country, when ‘Veroniku’, a young communist 22 years old, goes to the city of Shkodra and there he is suddenly arrested by the Italian carabinieri forces, who initially ask for identification documents and after doubting his answers, arrest him and immediately send him to the Police Station for questioning. At first he refuses to tell, but after the Italians get ready to start torturing him, slapping him in the face with a few palms, ‘Veronik’ starts to ‘disassemble’, initially revealing his real name and the reason why he had gone in that city, as well as for everything else they ask him, thus giving the Questura authorities all the names of his communist comrades, their nicknames, the leaders of the groups operating illegally and the main leadership of the Albanian Communist Party , the cells and bases where they hid and took refuge, as well as the Party technique, the people they had infiltrated up to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, etc ..
After that, based on a well-detailed plan, according to the data received from him, the Questura starts striking and retaliating against communist groups, arresting some of the main exponents of the Albanian Communist Party, as well as raiding some of their bases. , where they also found many valuable documents, which clearly testified about their subversive activity. After that, the Communist Circle of Shkodra, informed about what had happened to ‘Veronik’, through their man who acted camouflaged within the ranks of the Questura staff, convened urgently in an extraordinary meeting and after analyzing the situation, for to prevent a bigger blow from the Italian authorities, decides to carry out as soon as possible a very dangerous action, for the physical elimination of their communist friend, the spy ‘Veroniku’, who after he had been able to enter as a provocateur and agent of SIM in the ranks of anti-fascist groups, had betrayed the communist ideals, showing the comrades, their bases, the technique and press of the Party, etc., up to the highest leadership of the Albanian Communist Party.
The action is carried out by the guerrilla units of that city, which approach the Questura building in the city of Shkodra and throw some bombs and hand grenades at its offices and at the cell where the isolated ‘Veroniku’ was kept, who escapes peacefully. , being wounded with multiple wounds on his face and all over his bleeding body, from grenade launchers thrown by his guerrilla comrades. After this action, where the assassination did not end successfully, the Italian authorities, under the pretext of cure (but in fact to preserve it), take ‘Veronik’ and immediately send him to Italy, where he lived until the end of the War. in good condition, under strict security measures. But, after a long time, there arrives a unit specially sent by the senior leadership of the Albanian Communist Party, who kidnap ‘Veronik’, and bring him to Albania, where he is forced to give an account before the ‘people’s court’, for the ‘betrayal’ he had committed and finally receives the punishment he deserves.
This is more or less a synopsis of the Albanian film “Decision”, made by Kinostudio “Shqipëria e Re” in 1984, with director Kristaq Dhamo (“People’s Artist”) and screenplay by Spiro Dede and Neshat Tozaj, starring some from the most famous actors of Albanian cinematography, such as: Ndriçim Xhepa, “Veroniku”, Serafin Fanku (“Filipi”), Bujar Lako, Fane Bitaj, Guljelm Radoja, Xhevdet Ferri, Vangjush Furxhi, Robert Ndrenika, Anastas Kristofori, Eva Alikaj, Petrit Malaj, Edmond Budina, Ndrek Shkjezi, Koço Qendro, Liza Laska, etc.
This film which then and then, (until the collapse of the communist regime in 1991), had an echo of and made a great fuss, not only because it was based on a very well-known event, which took place in the period of the fascist occupation of the country, but also for the fact that it was the first time that in such a work of art, the figure of the main leader of the Party, Enver Hoxha, as well as that of some of the most famous figures of the Albanian Communist Party of period of the War, such as: Qemal Stafa, Vasil Shanto, Fiqret Shehu, etc.
Also, the film had an echo for the fact that for the event in question, ie for the “betrayal” of Ludovik Nikaj and Zef Ndoja, which led not only to “deconstruction and strike of the main bases of the Communist Party”, but also The murder of Qemal Stafa, Enver Hoxha, had stopped and he had written for a long time in his memoirs, which had started to be published since the beginning of the 80’s. But did the script of this film stand for the event related to the young communist, Ludovik Nika and his friend, Zef Ndoja, as well as the consequences that came after their arrest?
From the beginning it should be said that: based on the archival documents belonging to the event in question, which were made public after the collapse of the communist regime and mainly in recent years, the script of the film “Decision”, not only does not respond at all of truth, but that work of art propagated with rage by the official propaganda of the time, turns out to have been made specially, by order from “above”, by Enver Hoxha himself, in order to hide two of the most talked about events of the occupation period of the country, such as the assassination of Qemal Stafa and the deconstruction of the base (house of Shyqëri Këllez, Enver’s companion, during the period when he was illegal), where, among other things, the documentation of the founding meeting of the Albanian Communist Party, of November 8, 1941 , where Enver Hoxha resulted not as general secretary, but only as in charge of the Party’s financial problems.
Based on the above, the first and most important thing that refutes the whole alibi of Enver Hoxha, through the film “Decision”, is the fact that Ludovik Nikaj was not abducted in Italy by the Albanian secret services (Albanian Security Discovery of State) and was brought home bound to give an account before the people’s court for his betrayal, as ‘Veronik’ appears in the film, but based on archival documents extracted from the Central State Archive, (where most of the most of them are published for the first time in this article by Memorie.al), he came to Albania himself, of his own free will. Even going several times to the Albanian military mission, which was then in Italy, led by Halim Budo, where attached to the request to return home, Ludovik Nikaj had presented a document (line of conduct), issued and signed by the Italian communists, who ran the cell in the camp where he was being held in exile, where they noted that he had behaved exemplary as a communist militant.
Another thing that again refutes the alibi of the movie “Decision”, is the fact that Ludovik Nikaj, after coming to Albania, wrote a letter to Enver Hoxha, asking him to wait for him in the meeting, to clarify some things that had happened in Albania, during the period of the War, as well as after it in Italy. But Enver Hoxha, not only did not receive “Veronik” in the meeting, but he was given to the military court, which sentenced him to death and was executed, without being able to meet with the “Commander”!
If we refer to the whole event in question, the simplest logic tells us that: if he was going to feel a little guilty, he did not have to come to Albania, but he could stay in Italy, or he could go to any other country in the West as a political asylum, as did other exponents of the Albanian Communist Party who were accused of being traitors by Enver Hoxha, such as Sadik Premtja, etc., or the main leaders of the National Front and Legality, such as Mit’hat Frashëri , Abaz Kupi et al.
The fact that “Veronik” (Ludovik Nikaj), refused to stay in Italy, where he lived peacefully with his wife (Qefsere Bekaj), shows that he felt clean and did not kill his conscience over anything from his past during the War period, as he would sincerely testify, during his trial. But ironically, Ludovik came to Albania himself, at the beginning of 1945, as if to make a “gift” to Enver Hoxha, in the alibi that he (Enver) would create for years for the murder of Qemal Staff, in some of his books and most recently in 1984, giving the ‘approval’ for the realization of the film “Decision”, where at that time the best filmmakers in Albania were engaged.
Another thing that rejects again the alibi of Enver Hoxha and also of the historiography and official propaganda on the murder of Qemal Stafa after the “betrayal of Ludovik Nikaj and Zef Ndoja”, is the fact that Ludovik was arrested by the Italians on May 2. of 1942, exactly the day that Beqir Minxhozi had rented and signed the contract with the owner of the house, where he would be sheltered and then killed, Qemal Stafa, on May 5, 1942.
Another fact that sheds light on the real reasons that led Enver Hoxha to give ‘approval’ for the realization of the film “Decision”, were the not at all good relations he had for years, with the sisters of Qemal Stafa, which according to Nexhmije Hoxha’s diary, published recently, not only could not hone Enver Hoxha, but they did not even bother to wait for him, when he and Nexhmija went to their family on the occasion of May 5, the day of the martyrs.
While all these have been known for years, Memorie.al is publishing some archival documents that are published for the first time, which clearly and best prove the manipulation and distortion of some of the most talked about events of the Antifascist War period, as is the “betrayal” of Ludovik Nikaj and Zef Ndoja.
Continued from the previous issue
The trial of Ludovik Nika by the Military Court of the 1st Corps in Tirana and his testimonies on the charges that were raised as: ‘traitor, provocateur and SIM agent’
Ludovik Nika: These are done to me out of personal resentment and jealousy. I doubt Gjystina, as this has Marija, a cousin. I once wanted to go back to the party, but I was not accepted. I found out about Perlat’s murder in Bari, where we were interned.
I did not know if Koçi Xoxe was arrested, after my arrest, as I do not even know his name.
P. P. (Questions, answers): I did not report Kiço Prokon, I took a permit from him, and they gave it to Jovan Bajraktari. I did not talk to Petro Bullati at all. My contribution to the party must also be taken into account.
At the Shkodra police station, I was detained for 10-15 days and then deported to Italy. They did not take me there in order to protect me, because I was in the camp with the Israelis and not with the Albanians.
As I said before, as a SIM agent in the Questura I knew a Xhemal and Nush Doda. I understand that what I have done is treason.
Testimonies of Qefsere Beka, wife of Ludovik Nika
The defendant Qefsere Beka, married to the defendant Ludovik Nika and a resident of Tafaj Street, was introduced as a guard.
She stated: I did not assist defendant Ludovik. I married him in 1941, when I was illegal. We went to Shkodra for work and not for a walk. When we returned, we were caught and taken to the police station, where the husband’s mother was. We were asked about our friends and my brother, Ismail, who was in the gang. But I did not tell anyone, as they asked us separately.
I did not tell because I was not tortured much, as I was only beaten once. I do not know what they did to the man. A priest intervened to get me back to Catholicism, to save my husband, and with his mediation, put me in a room with him. I saw only a small wound on his cheek, but he did not tell me that he had been hit.
When we were bombed, we were both in the same room and not in the cell. After Ludovic was injured, we were taken to a hospital and later taken to Italy. After this assassination, I was asked where I suspected, but I did not say anything. After the assassination, I know that the police have maintained a good attitude towards the man.
I asked him about the assassination and he said that I do not remember that the communists did it. I was asked by two people. We were interned in Northern Italy, in a house and they paid us 1500 lira a month. We stayed a year. I have no doubt about my husband’s behavior, because there were Yugoslavs there as well. But when the Allies entered Bari, I was told to separate from him, as he was a traitor.
I went to Asim Jakova and he put me to work, to the bakery. When I was arrested I did not tell anyone. The Italian priest was called Achille Bronotti.
Questions, answers: My husband told me to go to Shkodra, because he was busy with work, while I was not, because I was small. The attitude of the Questura towards us was not bad. When the bomb was dropped, they asked us and we said we knew nothing.
The prosecutor took the floor: As proved before the court, the defendant present was a member of the Party when it was being organized and was fighting the occupier.
His activity lasted a few days and when they send him to Shkodra, together with his bride, Qefseren, they do not fulfill the task assigned, but since they are arrested by the police in the first questions, they break and show the bases of war and fascism here, he found adapt man to this work.
As he himself confirmed, the house of Zef Ndoja, Jovan Bajraktari, Marije Lezhja, Kiço Prokos was reported, the houses where the tracts were printed, etc. were discovered. The fascists then began arresting comrades and for this, the SNP sentenced him to death.
After the bombing of the Questura, they send them to Italy, where, according to his wife, they paid him 1500 lira a month. Because of them, many comrades were captured and the hero Qemal Stafa was surrounded and killed.
After his criminal act was proven, on behalf of his fallen comrades and pursuant to Article 14 of Law no. 41, on the organization and functioning of the Military Courts, to be considered a criminal and according to Article 18 of the same law, to be sentenced to DEATH.
As for the defendant Qefsere, she was aware of the activity of the defendant Ludovik, followed her husband on foot, to Italy and refused to separate him.
Therefore, based on Article 18 of the same law, I request to be sentenced to 5 years in prison.
Defendant Ludovik was asked for the last word and asked to be recognized for his contribution to the Party.
Defendant Qefsere said that the Prosecutor’s claim was unfair and that he should be acquitted.
With no choice but to sue, this was finally decided: DECISION
The Military Court of the Military Province of the 1st Corps in Tirana, formed by: President Bilbil Klosi, Lieutenant Colonel, Antar Ismail Çaushi, Antar, Argjir Lipivani, with the participation of the Prosecutor, Major Gjon Banushi and the secretary Mustafa Zaja, convened today on 15.5.1945 to try the defendant Ludovik Nika, son of Gjeka and Sheqa, born in 1921, born in Shkodra, without children, married to Qefsere Beka, educated in the Jesuit school in Shkodra and the defendant Qefsere Beka, daughter of Hysen and Kuma, 20 years old, born and living in Tirana, in “Tafaj” street, married to the defendant Ludovik Nika, based on the report kept by the Directorate of People’s Defense, with the accusation that the defendant Ludovik, provocative agent of fascism, traitor of SNP, agent of SIM:
The court: After reading the report found in the file, after questioning the defendants and hearing their apology, found that:
On May 2, 1942, the defendant Ludovik Nika, goes voluntarily to Shkodra, ostensibly for organizational work and in reality as he claims with his mouth, he does not do any work, but falls into the hands of the police together with his fiancée.
That in the first investigations and in the slightest pressure exerted on him by the Questura agents he does not hesitate a moment, but shows everything he knows about the foundations of the organization and the fellow leaders.
He also confirmed before the court, some of these arrests, such as: the report of Zef Ndoja of the warehouse that was in his house, the report of Jovan Bajraktari, Marije Lezha, and Kristo Prokos, while the other findings are understood by the strong fist that fascism gave to the organization right after Ludovik’s betrayal, comrades were arrested: Koci Xoxe, Lefter Kasneci, Gjystina Sata, Ali Demi, Beqir Minxhozi, and with the siege that took place on May 5, 1942 to the hero Qemal Stafa.
That the Intelligence Service of the occupier SIM, calls Ludovik’s betrayal as one of the most important revelations in Albania about the activity of the communists, where the report said that Ludovik Nika volunteered at the Shkodra Police Station and made very important stories. great about the general organization of subversive society (Communist Party).
That Ludovik Nika was assassinated by the communists for his betrayal right in the Questura office where he was staying, that the fascists after the assassination, calling their dirty spy endangered, send him to a village in Northern Italy, where they give him a monthly salary of 1500 lira.
That Qefsere Beka from the excessive adoration she had for her husband, follows her foot by foot and when it results in the high betrayal of her husband, seeing the assassination that was done to her, she goes with him to Italy and converts to Catholicism.
Taking into account all the activity of the defendants Ludovik Nika and Qefsere Nika Beka, and the losses they have brought to the National Liberation Movement and its vanguard to the SNP, the Court declares:
Pursuant to articles 14 and 15 of law no. 41 on the functioning and organization of the Military Courts in accordance with the request of the Prosecution, qualifies Ludovik Nika as a war criminal and enemy of the people and Qefsere Beka, according to Article 15 of that law, enemies of the people and based on Article 18 of the same law, Decided: Punishment of Ludovik Nikaj with DEATH.
Contrary to the claim of the Prosecutor for Qefsere Beka, he sentences him to 2 years in prison.
This decision is submitted to the Supreme Military Court for review.
Tirana on 15.5.1945
Minutes with the speech of Ludovik Nika in court, after his death sentence
Ludovik Nika: It is not true that I was a provocateur and an agent of the enemy, since I was caught by the police, I did not show the house of Shyqyri Këllez. I showed a few friends. Responsible Mark, I did not tell.
I have shown that these people are good for the Party, for Dusan and Miladin, I have shown that they are foreigners.
For the groups I have shown that they are evolving.
They used to be separated but now they are united.
As for Dusan and Miladin, I said they were Yugoslav communists.
In the group I was in charge of the cell in Italy and I kept in touch with these friends.
Report – memorandum of the Directorate of People’s Defense, sent to the Military Court of the 1st Corps, for the death sentence of Ludovik Nika
MINISTRY OF WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
DIRECTORATE OF PEOPLE’S PROTECTION
DEATH FASCISM FREEDOM OF THE PEOPLE
Tirana May 1, 1945
COURT USHT. PROVINCE USHT. CORPS I.
This memorandum is referred to, in order to be finely aware of the criminal and treacherous activity of Ludovik Gjergj Nika brought from Italy and now arrested by the First Brigade of the People’s Defense.
Ludovik Nika, was a member of the SNP. On May 2, 1942, he betrayed after, voluntarily surrendering to fascism and told Simi, all about the movement that was developing, becoming their agent. Ludovic told them everything from the leaders, the members, the secret bases where the tracts were printed, and finally suggested to them how to strike hard at the National Liberation Movement and their supporters.
His betrayal severely damaged the SNP cells, and Qemal Stafa was surrounded and killed. For these valuable and important services fascism, shows special care for its preservation. Not being sure of him in Tirana, where many assassinations were being carried out against the fascists and their agents, they send him to Shkodra. But even in the city police station, the comrades tried to carry out the assassinations. After his failure, the fascists take Ludovic together with his fiancée and send him to Italy.
Undisputed facts for the above are derived from his original processes, as well as from the questorial report compiled by his stories, found in the Questura. In these processes Ludovik tells the fascists everything he knows about the leaders of the movement and the party. Immediately after his stories, the campaign to crack down on communist exponents begins. Some come out illegally. Comrades Lefter Kasneci, Njazi Demi, Ali Demi, Selim Alimerko, are sentenced to death, but then left in prison.
The importance and great value of his stories told to the fascists, we find in the report of the questor inspector which is under-marked in a small part. It says:
“Clear and certain discoveries could be made only on May 2, 1942, when Ludovik Nika appeared at the Shkodra Police Station. He made very important statements about the organization of the” subversive society “of their main leaders, adherents and countries where they carried out their activity “.
He continues: “These revelations were useful to the police, for the arrest of some key officials as well as for the revelation of very important documents about the functioning and organization of the work of the communists.” And below: “The first and most important revelation was that of the secret center of the employee of the Ministry of Interior, Zef Ndoja”.
Following Ludovik’s depositions, police were able to uncover a secret warehouse at Zef’s house. Another discovery of this kind, told by Ludovik Nika, was made in the house of the mechanic Shyqyri Këllezi. One of the people who was part of the “subversive society” was Jovan Nikolla Bajraktari. He was shown by Ludovik, and arrested on 8 May. It should be noted that on May 5, one day after the capture of Zef Ndoja, his wife Gjystina Sata, Marie Lezhja, Drita Kosturi, and Beqir Minxhozi were arrested. On this occasion, Qemal Stafa fell in love with the public security forces.
Ludovik Nika, is one of the first to be betrayed, went to the side of the enemy and rendered valuable services to him, to the detriment of the Albanian people and their war. In the indisputable facts mentioned above, it is noted how great his betrayal has been. With purpose and awareness of the work he does, he spares nothing. From the main leaders to the ordinary sympathizers, he puts them all on the black lists of the SIM and the fascist carabinieri. Then he, along with them, weaves ways to hit them. Its aim is directed right at the heart of the movement and aims at its destruction, endangering the best sons and daughters of the people, those who are leading the fight for freedom.
And his betrayal had tangible consequences. Following the betrayal and espionage that followed, arrests, torture and executions of comrades continued. In questions asked by friends, Ludovik Nika admits that he “told something to the cashier”. But he did it because he was tortured. He emphasizes that torture on the one hand and loves for women, on the other, forced him to open his stomach to the fascists. For this, we seek to condemn his betrayal, in the most exemplary manner. So to carry out the necessary legal actions, we are accompanying you the traitor and provocative agent, Ludovik Nika, with his entire wife Qefsere, who participated in his betrayal./Memorie.al
DIRECTOR OF PEOPLE’S PROTECTION
GENERAL N / COLONEL
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