From Spartak Topollaj
-Stalin – Enver – bloody parallels of the red terror and why we Albanians know so little about the terrible crimes of these two dictators…?!
Memorie.al / The practical implementation of the communist ideas of Marx and Engels, even though they were at the peak of their activity as revolutionaries, philosophers and economists, it is known that it did not find ground in the short-lived Paris Commune (March 18 – May 28, 1871), while the anarcho-socialist ideas of Proudhon, Blank or Bakunin were also not supported and did not have popular support. Engels said that: The Commune of Paris was the grave of Proudhon’s socialist ideas! The fact that the teachings of the Communist Manifesto (1848) were not implemented, as well as the short time the Communards were in power (only 72 days, in Paris and 4-5 cities), were the reason that the Commune could not exercise extreme revolutionary violence proletarian! However, in their lifetime, the creators of the doctrine of Scientific Communism (which was never understood, where science stood in this doctrine), never got to see, even in a single country, the concrete implementation of the utopia of socialism, who, even when he was born, after the overthrow of the tsarist absolutism of the Romanov Dynasty in Russia, with the ‘October Revolution of 1917’, walked the criminal and bloody path of red Bolshevik terror!
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Could there be such malice and cynicism, except from an ungrateful fool like him?! It should not be forgotten that Zinoviev was also the Head of the Third Communist International?! The second big process was that of the 17, developed in the “October” hall of the Palace of Trade Unions in Moscow, from January 23 – 30, 1937.
The four main defendants were: Radek, Pyatakov, Sokol’nikov and Serebryakov, the others were: Arnold, Boguslavskij, Chestov, Drobnis, Hrasche, Livsic, Knyazev, Muralov, Norkin Pushin, Ratajchak, Stroilov and Turak! 13 by death, 4 with long prison terms, (which they couldn’t do, because they died), two killed by the “prisoners” and two executed in 1941?! In this trial, Radek also mentioned the name of Marshal Mikhail Nikolaievich Tuk’hachevskij, Chief of Staff of the Red Army and First Deputy Minister of Defense!
That was enough for him and a large number of senior military men, suspected of being his people, i.e. conspirators, to be arrested, tried and sentenced to death for treason and espionage in favor of Hitler’s Germany…?! In fact, the diabolical mind of Reinhard Heydrich, the Nazi Chief of Counter-Intelligence, who was well aware of Tukhachevsky’s military-commanding skills, drew up false documents, compromising him and others, and initiated them for him by Stalin, who even saw those, everyone suspected. The goal to weaken the command ability of the Red Army was clearly evident! And the German devil, it worked best!
Their conviction and execution played a role in the heavy losses and the shameful and tragic retreat of the Soviets in the first months after the German attack of June 22, 1941 on the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)! Thousands upon thousands of lives were lost. Stalin himself shut himself up for over a week in the Kremlin, where he lived out of fear and refused to admit anyone, until Klement Voroshilov rallied the leadership and forced a frightened Stalin to deliver the July 2 speech on Radio-Moscow, written by an unknown who…?!
It should not be forgotten that Tuk’hachevskii, this senior aristocratic and experienced military man, was in the first five Soviet marshals, alongside Budyon, Voroshilov, Bljuher and Yegorov! Ironically, part of the special military jury was his two friends and counterparts from the same day, Budjoni and Bljuheri! The eternal chairman Ulrich and the prosecutor, also eternal and merciless, Vyshinskij!
There they were tried, sentenced to death and immediately executed on June 12, 1937, together with Tuk’hachevskij, 7 famous generals: Jakir, Uborevich, Ejdeman, Kork, Putna, Feld’man and Primakov! Surprisingly, only General Jan Gamarnik, (Jakov Chudikovich Gamarnik, aka Jan Borisovich Gamarnik), former First Secretary of the Communist Party of Belarus, survived, but he too was apparently physically eliminated on May 31, 1937, where the official version was: suicide (like Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu to us, 44 years later, on the night between December 17-18, 1981)!
According to the inhuman Bolshevik, Leninist – Stalinist tradition, the families, relatives and friends of all the above-mentioned condemned during the ‘Purge’, had a tragic end with horror! The last trial of the “Great Purge” was the one against Nikolay Ivanovich Bukharin and 20 others, also known as the “Trial of the 21”, held in Moscow. Rikov, Kretinskij, Rosengold, Jagoda, Rakovskij, Tomskij etc., were considered part of this Enemy Group! Buk’harin, an intellectual, outstanding politician and leader, up to General Secretary of the Third Communist International, he too had oscillations in his thoughts and actions, often in opposition to Stalin! He was the Editor-in-Chief of the newspaper “PRAVDA”, and then “IZVJESTIJA”!
Stalin’s hatred towards him did not exclude Bukharin’s three wives, Nadezhda Mihajlovna Lukina, was executed, Esfir’ Isajevna Gurvich and Anna Mihajlovna Larina, managed to survive the horrors of the Stalinist Gulags! Even Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars in 1924-1929, otherwise Prime Minister), was arrested, tried, sentenced to death and executed together with Bukharin and others, on March 15, 1938!
Stalin led to suicide the Georgian Sergei Konstantinovich Orzhonikixe, (February 1937), an early Bolshevik, a senior leader and his childhood friend! Mikhail Pavlovich Tomskij (Yefremov), Head of Trade Unions and Soviets, had the same fate before him; he committed suicide on August 22, 1936, just before he was arrested! It was the turn of Jezhov, known as a master criminal, who also met the end of Jagoda in 1938! The Hungarian revolutionary Bela Kun, of the Third Communist International, Mikhail Liber, of the Union of Jewish Workers’ Unions, as well as the two marshals of the first five marshals, Yegorov and Bljuher, were executed without mercy!
Famous scientists, constructors and engineers, such as: Vavilov, Landau, Koroljov, Tupolev, Bronsteyn, Hellman, etc., passed during the ‘Purge’, in the burning fires of the Stalinist Dantesque Purgatory, famous artists and writers, such as: Erhenburg, Mandel ‘Stam, Ahmatova, Cvetajeva, Meyerchol’d, with wife Zinaida Raich, (friends of Stanislavski and Mayakovsky), Ochitović, Rasputin’s family, Rose Cohen the British journalist, and many, many others too!
Although Stalin declared the end of the “Purge” in 1939, it should be noted that it continued until he fled to “Hell” on March 5, 1953! The numbers of those executed, arrested and exiled, in the Siberian Stalinist Gulags, grow frighteningly to the point of being unbelievable! Thus, according to the Archives of the NKVD (predecessor of the KGB), while in 1936 1,118 people were executed, in the years 1937-’38, this number increased drastically, up to about 190,000 people?!
In the years 1921-1953, a total of approximately 340,000 people were executed, such as: “enemies of the Bolshevik power”, of which, only in the years 1936 – 1939, i.e. during the Stalinist ‘Purge’, approximately 225,000 innocent people were executed! Red terror, almost unique horror in the world, this was life in the great Soviet Socialist Union, during the 30 years of the despotic rule of “Father Stalin”, as the Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha liked to call him! Likewise, no one can know and tell the true numbers of military executions by the Soviets themselves, in the years of the Second World War 1939 – 1945, but without the slightest doubt, it must be accepted that he was much bigger…?!
Even in foreign policy, Stalin began flirting with the Hitlerite Nazis, with whom he signed in Moscow the Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact of 1939, known as the ‘Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact’, (de jure, se de facto, was the ‘Stalin-Hitler Pact’), and made the dirty, treacherous and criminal agreement with National Socialist Germany, for the division of Poland between them, which began to be implemented on September 1, 1939, by the Hitlerites, an event that officially marks the beginning of World War II. A few weeks later, even from the Soviet Socialist Union, the same thing happens?!
Personally, (I am the author of these lines), as a graduate and specialist in Modern History, I have never understood why the invasion of Albania by Fascist Mussolini Italy was not on April 7, 1939, the beginning of the Second World War. ..?! How could the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (November 30, 1939 – March 12, 1940) be justified with the absurdity of an uneducated “classic” of Marxism-Leninism, leader of the largest socialist state in the world, since its peak of Shoven megalomania, asked Finland to give the Soviet Union, strategic territories, in exchange for larger areas covered by snow and ice, which never melted, which no one needed…?!
This war cost the heroic Finnish people 63,204 killed or missing, and 158,000 wounded, while the Soviets themselves 90,939 killed and missing and 141,149 wounded! The Katyn massacre, or Soviet genocide in Poland, with 22,000 officers and intellectuals of the Polish aristocracy executed, (April 3 – May 19, 1940), one of the most terrible massacres of Stalin’s NKVD, (attributed as the work of the Nazis) , not without the approval of the Anglo-Americans, who knew, but shamefully hid the truth…?!
Exactly 60 years later, in honor of the 22,000 Polish executed in the ‘Katin Massacre’, the entire leadership of the Polish army with the President (right), Lech Kaczynski at the helm, took off with the presidential plane ‘TU-154’. But they never got there, because in still unclear and exhausting circumstances, the new Russian-made plane, the same as Putin’s, touched the trees and crashed, burning with more than 100 people on board. , while it was only 20 km. near Smolensk…?!
Who was the real Stalin, for the nostalgic of this red Despot of the Kremlin, only his behavior would be enough, with his wives, children and family, or even with his closest friends and collaborators! His first wife, Yekaterina Svanidze, died very young, only 22 years old in 1907 from typhus, (but she was also tuberculosis), and most of the time she was sad, perhaps also because of Joseph’s rudeness, which no one ever learned how much and how he loved her!
But the fact that he never loved Jakov, the son he had with Yekaterina, whom he constantly humiliated, especially when he was left alone injured, during a suicide attempt, telling him that: “You are so ungodly that you can’t even kill yourself”?! Yakov, even though Stalin’s son, like everyone else, went to the War Front where he risked his life several times, but was captured by the Germans, who proposed to exchange him with Field Marshal Von Paulus, he was also captured in the Battle of Stalingrad. The answer of ‘Koba’ (Stalin) was: “I don’t have a son with this name, but even if I do, a Feldmareshal is never exchanged for a lieutenant”?! In deep despair, Yakov threw himself onto the Nazi camp’s electrified barbed wire, tragically ending his life!
Stalin’s second wife, Nadezhda Sergeevna Alilluyeva, with whom he had a daughter Svetlana and a son Vasiliy, an excellent woman, committed suicide (or was killed by the people of the Secret Police), on the night of November 9, 1932, only 31 years old?! Even that great soul, who was realizing what kind of man she was, Stalin humiliated her often, even publicly, as was the last evening of her life, when she returned by train from afar, saw with her own eyes the misery extreme of the peasants, while the “prijoms” with caviar, truffles, meat of rare animals of the Siberian forests or wild birds, vodka and the most expensive French wines, were overnight in the Kremlin!
Enraged by her words, Stalin took a lit cigarette from one of his subordinates (drunkards, satisfied pigs) and put it out on her forehead! This and Nadja’s last night, for which, it was officially said, she died after an acute peritonitis, caused by burst appendicitis?! Her family, ie the grandparents and uncles of Stalin’s children, were imprisoned and exiled! Svetlana, daughter of Stalin, (1926-2011), who fled the USSR, has written a book with the horrors of her father’s regime, up to the disappearance of her friends and lovers, such as: the 40-year-old Jewish director, Kepler , who ended up in the Varkuta Gulag, the Jewish student, Morozov, with whom she had a son Joseph in 1945, then marries Yuri, the son of Zhdanov, and gives birth to a daughter Yekaterina, (in 1950), divorces and marries the Indian communist, Brajesh Singh! Svetlana was forced to flee the USSR and went to India, then to the USA, England, again to the USA and in 1984 after a long exile, she returned to the USSR!
She married William Wesley Peters, architect next to the famous Frank Lloyd Wright and changed her name, being called Lana Peters, when she gave birth to daughter Olga! Her book “20 Letters to a Friend” became a best seller, as it shows the terrible repression of her despotic father’s power! Stalin’s son with Nadezhda, Vasiliy Josifovich Dzhugashvili, born on March 21, 1921, pilot and aviation general, died alcoholic, after being released from prison, convicted “for gross negligence in the performance of duty”, on March 19, 1962!
Stalin also adopted another child, a boy, Artyom Fyodorovich Sergeev (1921-2008), son of a friend of Stalin’s, accidentally killed on the railway. He reached the rank of general and had as his wife, Amaya Ruiz Ibarruri, daughter of Dolores Ibarruri “La Pasionaria”, President of the Spanish Communist Party, communist and famous republican fighter, who argued fiercely with Enver Hoxha at the Conference of 81 Communist Parties in Moscow – November 1960! Artyom is mentioned for an interesting episode, and perhaps among the only ones, where Stalin appears honest. Arguing with the adopted son, who was asking for a favor, since he too was a Stalin, the dictator turns to him and says: “Stupid! Stalin, I am not even myself! Stalin is only the one you and the people see in movies and magazines and read in books and newspapers”!
In a wonderful but shocking film (166 minutes, directed by Ivan Passer, 1992), entitled “Stalin”, Hollywood Warner Bros. and Studio HBO, in the interpretation of the great actor Robert Duval, presents an apocalyptic figure and criminal of the Soviet dictator, in the light of a terrible reality of the USSR, during 35 years, under the rule of Lenin and Stalin! Even the Russians themselves have made another equally shocking film, with this theme, under the title “Burnt in the Sun”, directed by Nikita Mikhailkov, where the tragic end of Colonel Kotov, hero of the Civil War and former Kolkozi Chairman, is presented in the years The great purge, spied on, arrested, tortured and executed by Stalin’s NKVD, to whom he fed idealism, dedication to the revolution and socialism and his honesty, illusions to the end!
Stalin, this ignorant and uneducated peasant, was also a proven anti-Albanian, even though Enver Hoxha, (“Our Stalin”, as bloody as he), tried all his life to present him as “Babá”, even when he died, on March 5, 1953, he forced the senior leadership of the ALP and all the participants in the occasion ceremony in the main square of the capital to kneel! In the negotiations at the end of the war, or the beginning after it, Stalin, as evidenced by authentic documents, (now de-classified, published by Prof. Dr. Spiro Mëhilli), he did not even take into account small countries and peoples, such as Albania of the Albanians, whose word and vote should never be equal to that of the “big”?!
Stalin dared to propose to Josif Broz Tito, before breaking with the Yugoslavs, as testified by Milovan Gjilasi, (leader and then dissident of the Yugoslav Communist Party), part of the high Yugoslav delegation at that meeting in the Kremlin, that they they swallowed Albania! During the Second World War, not a single Soviet cartridge arrived in Albania, except for Major Ivanov and a captain, who carried a brown leather bag, with a notepad, red and blue pencils and eraser?!
Of course, it must be admitted that the Soviet peoples fought a great patriotic war against the Hitlerite Nazi invaders, and some battles such as Stalingrad, Kursk-Oriol, or the nearly 1,000-day siege in Leningrad, are major, and here the role of Stalin, whose crimes would not even wash away the oceans! Memorie.al
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