Memorie.al publishes an unknown archival document issued by the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP), which bears the date 31 August 1968, where the Director of State Security at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Interior Minister, Feçor Shehu, through a report-information informs Behar Shtylla who covered the foreign relations near the apparatus of the Central Committee of the ALP, regarding the various comments that were made in some districts of the country after the event that took place on August 21 of that the year when the Soviet Union and several other Warsaw Pact member states, such as East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria, undertook military aggression by invading Czechoslovakia. What is said in that report-information drafted by the State Security regarding the comments made by the “enemy element” after the events in Czechoslovakia, as well as those spoken and discussed by some of the ambassadors and diplomats of foreign missions accredited in Tirana, as ambassador Frenchman Yves Pino, Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, Nasho Bleda, Official of the Arab Embassy, Abdyl Nenin Sabri, of the Arab Embassy, Abdyl Nenin Sabri, of the Romanian Embassy, Florin Dragoi, of the Cuban Embassy, Gilberto Kamil, Chargé d’Affaires , Piotër Gllavacki, the driver of the Polish embassy, Bjeslav Ebies, etc., who were under surveillance by the “House of Leaves” in the center of Tirana ?!
The events that took place in the first months of 1968 in some Eastern European countries, such as the demonstrations in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia, but also in some western countries (mainly with students), such as France, Italy, etc., which culminated with the military aggression and invasion of Czechoslovakia on August 21 of that year by the Soviet Union and some of its other allies (East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland), had a strong impact and greatly alarmed the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, who feared a “domino effect” on our country, as Albania of that time was considered one of the “weakest links” in the entire Communist East. Among other things, this is made known by this archival document dated 31.VIII.1968 (Fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP) and titled “Top secret”, which is a report-information of The Director of the First Directorate in the Ministry of Internal Affairs (State Security), Feçor Shehu, sent to Behar Shtyllës, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, who for a few months was covering foreign relations in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the ALP. As we will see from the information-report in question on the topic “On hostile comments”, given the tense situation in the international arena, with a high degree of sensitivity (typical of dictatorial communist countries and regimes), official Tirana was being shown quite attentive, as he feared those events, that they could happen in Albania as well. And this is clear from the numerous archival documents found in the Fund of the Central Committee of the ALP, where the Ministry of Internal Affairs, through the Minister, Kadri Hazbiu and his deputies, such as Feçorr Shehu, Rexhep Kolli, etc. ., who were also the main leaders of the State Security, sent a series of information and reports to the senior leadership, starting with Enver Hoxha, Hysni Kapo, Ramiz Alia, Xhaferr Spahiu, etc., through which he informed with details, on what was happening in every corner of the country, from south to north. In the main focus of those reports-information, were the comments made by the diplomatic corps accredited in Tirana, as well as by various intellectuals, mainly the “enemy element”, about the events that were taking place in some Eastern European countries, such as Czechoslovakia. , Poland etc. And not without reason, as it seems from this document, but also from a series of other archival documents that are in the relevant files in the state archives, the situation at that time was precipitating in such a way that the communist regime of Tirana, after the intervention of Soviet military troops in Czechoslovakia on August 21 of that year, passed the army on standby no. 1, same as in a state of war. And more than any aggression from outside, the communist regime feared any movement from within. In this context of the logical course of events, this period of time (throughout 1968), seems to have been one of the most alarming and frightening periods that that regime has gone through, (until 1990 when the embassy event took place), which can be seen from the document in question that Memorie.al publishes in full as it is in the relevant file in the Central State Archive.
Feçor Shehu’s “Top Secret” report on Behar Shtyllën
THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA VERY SECRET
MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS Copy no. 5
Nr. 1600 Prot.
Tirana, on 31.8.1968
Subject: On hostile comments
CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF ALP
(COMRADE BEHAR PILLARS)
When our people rose up against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and fully endorsed the declaration of the Party and the government, the enemy elements, taking advantage of these events, intensified their hostile activity and developed agitation and wider propaganda. Thus, within eight days, many data were received from these elements, as well as over 30 data from diplomatic and trade representatives who are in our country.
COMMENTS FROM INTERNAL ENEMIES
Even during these days the internal enemy elements have continued to comment comprehensively mainly on the events in Czechoslovakia. These elements have so far spoken only of the first period of invasion:
The sharpest hostile comments have been made by anti-party elements, who express various opinions, but their main goal is to hit the political line of the Party and its leadership. Some time ago our press said that the Czech Republic was falling into the lap of imperialism, if so, then the Soviet Union did very well to invade it, because it defended socialism. So what is the purpose of our Party with Czechoslovakia, which is moving towards capitalism, or with Czechoslovakia, which is moving towards socialism? Worse still is our stance when the intervention of the Warsaw Pact forces was condemned and aligned with American imperialism and Tito. Until now our Party and government attacked the Soviet Union because it was linked to American imperialism, but now that they are attacking Dubcek because it allied with the Americans, which showed that B.S. is not related to the Americans but to the Warsaw Pact, why again condemns B.S. and aggressor? That being said, they say it suits them.
Socialist states should have democracy and cooperation, but in fact they are eating each other’s heads and will continue to do so until they cease to exist. -The Czech Republic is continuing to follow the policy of the XXth Congress of P.K. of the Soviet Union, after the Czechs say that socialism without democracy does not make sense? What the Czech leaders did is to be worshiped, because they have started a great struggle to eradicate all remnants of Stalinism, and only then can they feel free, fully responding to the demands of the time. -Of our people talk a lot about the Marxist-Leninist movements in Europe, this is not true at all, they are some groups without authority, vagrants and renegades who do not play any role in the life of these countries and what is said that they allegedly lead the strikes , is a lie. To the real communists and their parties in Europe, neither the name nor the mark seems to you.
Enemy elements coming from the ranks of Yugoslav reactionary emigration have made a series of very hostile comments. -The Russians have finally decided to show all the traitors once again who they are. The Bolsheviks have remained Bolsheviks, this is a great success for us. The Czechoslovak people are more civilized than the Soviets, so it is easier for the Czechs to implement the new line of socialism similar to the Yugoslav one, which is scorned more only by the Albanian communists. The Czech Republic did not throw any rifles for its liberation, but it was the socialist countries that liberated it, so their entry is legal. Public opinion condemns B.S.’s actions, but it should be noted that B.S. has just begun its mission. -We political emigrants should tighten our ranks and not discuss these events with the Albanians, because they will immediately start digging with us to get information about our friends, after it should be known once and for all that Albanians do not want Slavization and us.
Various enemy elements processed by our bodies, have extended their hostile comments even to the events in Czechoslovakia, they simultaneously look at their hopes. -We have been waiting for this situation for a long time, now fear has entered their hearts and they have nowhere to stay. They make statements only to frighten others, but in fact they themselves know that they have nothing to do. Seeing the work badly in this situation, they will try to take action, but we must be careful, we must be careful and the time has come to occupy, not only should we not throw any rifles, but on the contrary, t ‘ we fall for these. -The Czech Republic was attacked because it together with Yugoslavia and Romania would create the small Entente against the Warsaw Pact, this shows that they are peoples with tradition and culture, they make their own independent policy, which responds to their interests , not like us who are drawn by the noses of others.
Attacks on B.S. against the Czech Republic is a savior for us, it shows that the wheel of history began to move, contradictions are sharpening socialist countries, so this is the signal of change, this will not be the only attack of the B.S. After the Czech Republic, they will attack other countries, including our country. -If our country is attacked, the people will not fight to protect this regime, as they are very dissatisfied with the measures taken.
B.S. made a mistake in our country that based his work on Teme Sejko, he should have done as he did in Czechoslovakia, but nevertheless this work is still unknown. – Congratulations to the Russians, they know that world opinion would condemn them, but nevertheless they were strong towards the Americans, showing them that in Europe we do as we please, where they do not obey verbally, we are able to persuade them forcefully. -Our people talk about revolutionization, but forget that the youth wants freedom and will do as the Czechs did. Our leadership does not take into account the change of times, but it has taken this path and is not returning only for stubbornness, not adapting to the peoples of Europe. This too will come to an end.
The Czechs are deployed, on the road in January of this year. To date, history has not seen cases of unity between the people and the leadership, as it seems that the current Czech leaders have found the vein of the people and he supports them. -Even in our country, the situation can not stay like this, it will definitely change, although to us it seems to us who knows what, but other countries did not ask about Czechoslovakia and not ask about us. Now is the time to be patient and careful, because as the B.S. begins, the day will come for our country as well, as he will not forget the insults we have done to him.
Some Catholic clerics have expressed the view that Albania will be attacked by the Soviet Union, but even if it does not, the Albanian government will be forced to change its domestic policy out of fear.
5. The following various comments have been made by some intellectuals about these events:
A painter addressed some workers as follows: “How quickly do you call it aggression, how quickly do you endure that you know nothing of what work is like. The Soviet Union may have been right, because the Czechs wanted to leave the Warsaw Pact, but what is the difference between the intervention that the Soviet Union made in 1956 and now? Why then did we approve the intervention in Hungary and now they do not approve it, when it is the same action? -B.S. there are no economic interests in these states, but this was an opportunity to show its superpower, which it really has and showed, so BS show that it relies on its own powers and satellites should always consider it as a protector.
Dubcek in the changes he made in Czechoslovakia, could improve the situation, so his tacit resistance is right. On this occasion he made an analogy with our war, saying that if the partisans did not attack the Germans, the latter would not harm our country because they were in transit.
There have also been comments from people who are not enemies, but politically unclear, who in some cases express pro-Soviet views and in others are afraid that our country will be involved in this situation. This issue is very important. The Soviet Union is a state that does not allow distortions. To be fair, we are not doing well at all, because all those communist parties that know, more pursue a different policy, but here it is not a matter of principles, but of chairs. By standing firm, the Czechs in the assembly showed that Dubcek’s tactics and strategy would win.
We too have a hard time, the Soviets have caught our eye and occasionally want to fall on us. It is possible that, after calming down the situation in the Czech Republic, they will fall to Romania and negotiate with Yugoslavia to join us. The Soviets try to take advantage of this: especially when our press fiercely attacks them. These Russians that are today, these have been before, but we were blindfolded and called the wolf lamb. These of us as young politicians, believed and adored them, but our biggest victory has been the separation from Ivan’s nails.
- ON COMMENTS FROM FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVE OFFICERS
The secretary of the Turkish embassy, Nasho Bleda, said: “The actions of the Soviets are ugly. The Russians did not foresee the serious consequences of the actions against the Czech Republic, for lowering their prestige. Their statements about non-interference in the internal affairs and self-determination of the peoples are empty words. I was attracted by your readiness in the press to withstand any aggression. I do not think that Yugoslavia will allow the Russians to cross their territory to attack Albania. “As for Greece, it can not make such a joke, that Albania today has a name abroad, but even if the Greeks dared to cross the Albanian border, the Turkish army would jump without hesitation against Greece.”
The official of the Arab embassy, Abdyl Nenin Sabri, said: “Soviet troops, most of them will stay in the Czech Republic for about a year, then they will leave, while in our country Israel did not leave without a war. “Our government is very lenient, because when some generals betrayed, they were sentenced to two years in prison.”
The Italian embassy official, Antonio Girorami, said: “The Soviet Union attacked the Czech Republic because there were contradictions between them, and when the talks failed, the Soviets used weapons. The Czech people have nothing to do. They must be numerous in number. The events in the Czech Republic are showing that the Russians are treating their people badly. “Enver Hoxha was very right to sever ties with them.”
The official of the Romanian embassy, Florin Dragoi, said: “The Albanian Labor Party was completely right regarding the attitude towards BS, while in history it has not been seen that one socialist country attacks another. The ALP is a free and independent party and says its word without fear. The Czech comrades here in Tirana told me that the ALP has rightly described Bratislava’s statement as a lie and demagoguery. ” When we saw the May 1 parade that young men and women paraded with rifles, we thought, what are these? But now we realized that this was right and necessary. French Ambassador Yves Pino, speaking to Pascal Korran, said: “It must be borne in mind that both the Czech Republic and Poland were once capitalist states, and this fact should not be forgotten, no matter what path events take. “Roosevelt would never have accepted that these two states align themselves with the East and secede from the West.”
The charge d’affaires of the Cuban embassy, Gilberto Kamil, in a telegram sent to the address “Minre Cuba London”, informs about the statement of the party and the government of the RPSH and emphasizes that the Soviet attack against the Czech Republic is a fascist method. Condemns the attitude of the Czech leaders and finally adds that the Albanian people will fight against any aggression. In a conversation, he said: “Fidel Castro stressed that BS did not do well to attack the Czech Republic, but action was necessary, as the Czech Republic was moving towards capitalism, and I think the definition is not right, because the Soviets occupied the Czech Republic. Fidel Castro spoke for an hour about Tito and described him as an agent of imperialism, a traitor, etc. These days I was in the Czech Republic, where I stayed 24 hours in Prague. It was rumored that Soviet troops would leave the cities and leave, but returned the next day, as demonstrations against the Dubcek agreement began. The Czechs are angry and have no sympathy for the Soviets. The Polish Charge d’Affaires, Piotr Gllavacki, in a conversation he had in Durrës with the Turkish ambassador, said: “We thought and were convinced that China and Albania would tacitly approve the aggression against the Czech Republic and thus we would have the opportunity to to get closer to China and Albania. “We also thought we were acting like Marxist-Leninists to save socialism in the Czech Republic, which was in danger from Dubcek with comrades, but quite the opposite happened. Everyone was released against the Russians.”
The driver of the Polish embassy, Bjeslav Ebies, said: “The attack on the Czech Republic is a great shame and a vile act. Polish troops also participated, but they were forced out by Soviet troops. In Albania you can speak against the Soviets, but not in our country. ” The driver of the Czech embassy, Jozef Dermolo, said: “You Albanians are very good, while the Soviets fascistly occupied our country. “The Czech Republic is perfectly armed, but it did not empty any rifles, because that was ordered by our leadership.” The Czech specialist in Durrës who deals with the transport of goods, said: “The article” Voice of the People “,” Where is Czechoslovakia going? “Was illegally distributed in Prague, quoting Julian Fuçik. “Our party,” he says, “made the mistake of not publishing this article in the newspaper itself, because that would not have the effect when it was distributed illegally.” “This article was not fair, because we are far behind Novotn’s short-sighted policy.” Ceku Jon Llukash, a chrome technician, said: “Our resistance against the invading troops causes bloodshed and is impossible, as the Soviets put four in front of one of our divisions.”
- ON FINDINGS AT THE BORDER WITH YUGOSLAVIA AND GREECE
Following the events in Czechoslovakia, a number of movements have been observed on our borders, especially with Yugoslavia, which indicate that they are taking a number of measures to protect themselves.
TOWARDS THE YUGOSLAV BORDER
Drivers who take chrome in Kam of Tropoja, have said that their country is preparing for war, after Sunday night all night military convoys moved from Gjakova in the direction of Deçan. In the province of Nis, they called reservists and took them to the border with Bulgaria, as well as in the direction of Macedonia. The soldiers, who were to be released on August 20, were canceled. In the direction of the border that includes Pogradec, it has been noticed that the Yugoslavs have strengthened the service and increased the surveillance in the direction of our land, equipping the observers with radio receiving and transmitting devices. In the direction of the border that includes the Shkodra area, numerous movements of planes have been noticed.
TOWARDS THE GREEK BORDER
In the border sector, which includes Korça, a number of officers have been seen at the border, working with maps. The survey in the direction of our country has been increased. In the border sector that includes Cologne, on dt. On August 24, 1968, the Greeks alerted the village of Shisare and about 10 other villages went and armed themselves at the opening point. Numerous car movements have also been observed in these villages. In the border sector that includes Gjirokastra, on dt. On August 24, 1968, in the Greek village of Aranisht, 16 buses and four cars arrived, which were filled with soldiers and civilians. Some of the buses also went to the Greek Post of Kakavija. Courses on dt. 25.8.1968, in the Greek village of Kristoval, a bus went, the villagers gathered there and from the bus spoke with a loudspeaker for one hour in a row.
DIRECTOR OF THE FIRST DIRECTORATE