Memorie.al publishes an unknown archival document extracted from the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP), where the then Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, Rexhep Kolli, sends him a report -information, the secretary of the Central Committee of the ALP, Hysni Kapo, (who covered the organs of the “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”, such as: Ministry of Internal Affairs, State Security, Prosecution, Investigation, etc.), regarding the situation that prevailed instead, after the events that are taking place in some Eastern European countries, such as: Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, etc., which had a great impact in Albania, mainly in the “enemy element”. What is said in that information report with the logo “Top secret”, of Deputy Minister Kolli, regarding the comments of foreign diplomats in Tirana, as well as the “agitation and propaganda” carried out by some people, mainly intellectuals and the “enemy element”, in the districts of Tirana, Durrës, Shkodra, Peshkopi, Fier, Lushnja, Elbasan, Librazhd, Korça, Tepelena, Lezha, Rrëshen, Gjirokastra, etc.
The events that took place in the first months of 1968 in some Eastern European countries, such as the demonstrations in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia, but also in some western countries (mainly with students), such as France, Italy, etc., had an impact. strong and alarmed the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, who was afraid of a “domino effect” on our country, as Albania of that time was considered by “revisionist” countries, as one of the weakest “links”, throughout the Communist East. Among other things, this is made known by this archival document dated 14.V.1968 (Fund 14. Ap. Central Committee of the ALP, Structure, File 88. Year 1968) and titled “Top secret” , which is a report-information of the Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of that time, Rexhep Kolli, sent to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the ALP, Hysni Kapo (who covered in the street the organs of the “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”, as Ministry of Interior, State Security, Camps and Prisons, Prosecution, Investigation, etc.), on the topic: “On hostile comments and slogans of the enemy element”.
So, starting from the tense situation in the international plan, with a sensitivity of a high degree (typical for dictatorial communist countries and regimes), official Tirana was being very careful, as it was afraid of those events, that they could happen in Albania as well. . And this is clear from the numerous archival documents found in the Fund of the Central Committee of the ALP, where the Ministry of Internal Affairs, through the Minister, Kadri Hazbiu and his deputies, such as Feçorr Shehu, Rexhep Kolli, etc. ., who were also the main leaders of the State Security, sent a series of information and reports to the senior leadership, starting with Enver Hoxha, Hysni Kapo, Ramiz Alia, Xhaferr Spahiu, etc., through which he informed with details, on what was happening in every corner of the country, from south to north. In the main focus of those reports-information, were the comments made by the diplomatic corps accredited in Tirana, as well as by various intellectuals, mainly the “enemy element”, about the events that were taking place in some Eastern European countries, such as Czechoslovakia. , Poland etc. And not without reason, as it seems from this document, but also from a series of other archival documents that are in the relevant files in the state archives, the situation at that time was precipitating in such a way that the communist regime of Tirana, after the intervention of Soviet military troops in Czechoslovakia, passed the army on alert no. 1, same as in a state of war. And more than any aggression from outside, the communist regime feared any movement from within. In this context of the logical course of events, this period of time (throughout 1968), seems to have been one of the most alarming and frightening periods that that regime has gone through, (until 1990 when the embassy event took place), which can be seen from the document in question that Memorie.al publishes in full as it is in the relevant file in the Central State Archive.
Secret information report for Hysni Kapo
THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA VERY SECRET
MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS Tirana, on 14.5.1968
No. 821 Prot.
Subject: On the hostile activity of agitation and propaganda
SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE ALP
Comrade HYSNI KAPO
During the first quarter of the following year, agitation and hostile propaganda have been quite pronounced.
Through this form of its work, the enemy has tried to address a number of problems related to the internal situation of the country and the international situation, but in particular it has focused on some issues of running the political-ideological front and on the situation. economic.
The ways in which he has tried to incite resentment, incite defeatism and insecurity against the Party and our People’s Power, have been various, but the most important are agitation and oral propaganda and anonymous letters and tracts with hostile content.
Agitation and oral propaganda
This has been the most widespread and effective method of hostile activity. Comments were made mainly individually in close social and friendly circles, but in some cases were also made in the presence of two or more persons swayed or infected by the work of the enemy.
Agitation and propaganda aimed at:
Against the general line of the Party and its leadership. The right policy of the Party towards revisionist countries is considered reckless and capricious. It is taken as a reason that Albania was allegedly isolated from all other countries except China, which according to them, as a result of the Cultural Revolution, created many enemies inside and outside its country and as a result, is in a turbulent situation. and hopeless.
They spread the opinion that ostensibly in the leadership of our Party there is no unity, that allegedly a part of the old partisans have been persecuted, taking as an example some anti-party elements who have been convicted. At the same time, it is invented that supposedly a good part of the officers who have been released, have been left without work, etc. It is also observed that enemy elements, expressing their unbridled hatred, have shown tendencies and desire for terror against the leadership of the party and the state. For example, two arrested by our bodies in the district of Lezha, aged 26 and 27, among others admit that they wanted to commit such acts against the party leadership, while another in the district of Tropoja, says that, people have been pushed to eliminate one of the main leaders of the Party. There were similar comments from the enemies in the districts of Shkodra, Librazhd and Tirana.
The comments of the enemies speak against the socialist system in our country, considering it as very rigid, which ostensibly suppresses democratic freedoms, suppresses the initiative and disregards the values of the individual. Comparisons are made with revisionist countries, calling them on the right and good path. The recent counter-revolutionary events in the Czech Republic and Poland are admired and there are allusions that these will allegedly happen in our country as well.
An enemy element, among other things, states: “Albania is in Europe and must follow it”. And a diplomat of the Czech embassy in Tirana, starting from the goal of the tendencies of bourgeois and revisionist liberalism, said: The whole Czech people demand the democratization of the party and social organizations, after Novotni and his comrades have made a subjective policy and have not respecting the norms of democracy in the party. You do not know the situation in Czechoslovakia; only in Albania is it said that capitalism is being established in the Czech Republic, and this is nothing but propaganda.
Another Czech trade representative in Durrës, on the internal situation in the Czech Republic, said: “In this case, we will not break away from the socialist camp, from the Soviet Union and from the socialist path, but it is understood that we will build socialism from our perspective.” However he continues:
“Now we are facing two pressures, the conservative one and the liberal one. The latter demand more than they deserve. In our country, things are rapidly turning in favor of liberalism, but the outcome is still unknown. “In the Czech party they have lost their liveliness, their fighting spirit, the working communists have fallen into hibernation, there is no criticism, meetings become rare and many times are held only with the discussion of the speaker.” And below, regarding the changes that took place in the Czech Republic, he explains: “Our party was founded in 1920-1922 and all the old comrades seek to regroup to oppose the new course, as they are for the dictatorship of the proletariat.
The revolutionary decisions of the party and the initiatives born of the working masses themselves, are considered as dictated by the need to overcome the great difficulties that are supposedly created, they call them unjust because they allegedly do not correspond to the interests of the people, etc. It is claimed that the measures taken to cut down on cooperative yards and personal livestock will be taken even further, taking away from the villagers even the few livestock and land they have. The measures taken against religion and backward customs are allegedly not approved by the people, because the measures for school revolutionism are supposedly a blow to the people of art and culture, a further tightening of censorship in this direction, etc.
In addition, the participation of the masses in various actions is considered imposed from above for demagogic effects, so, according to them, in this way and through propaganda work, the people are always kept in tension, without leaving time to think about the injustices that allegedly are made to him by power and the party.
They spread the opinion that ostensibly, whatever decision and measures are taken in the name of the revolutionization of life, still, sooner or later, our country will go the way that revisionist countries are walking today. There is talk against the economic situation in our country, saying that supposedly the salaries of ordinary workers and employees are so small that they can not provide even the minimum necessities of life, that supposedly there are no jobs for everyone, that the villagers work hard and receive little, that supposedly the economic situation in general is deteriorating more and more, that only people with great responsibilities and salaries live well, the economic life in capitalist and revisionist countries is admired and raised.
Here are some of the characteristic expressions: “People who get sick are right, salaries are small enough for a living, people do not need talk and conferences, they need bread.” In Albania it is worse than in the rest of the world, the leaders who have turned the country into a hell know this, have set the iron curtain. “If people see how life is in Europe, they will all stand up.” There have also been many comments regarding overtime work and Sundays, which has been applied for the effect of carrying out the plan by some economic enterprises.
Agitation and propaganda through anonymous letters and tracts
Through this method, which from 1967 onwards has become more and more pronounced, the enemy elements have developed quite tendentious and defamatory activities against the Party politics. During the first quarter of 1968, 17 anonymous letters were made, leaflets with hostile content were thrown in three cases in Tirana and one in the city of Korça. In the leaflets thrown in the city of Tirana, it is written, among other things: “People, do not stay in the darkness of their politics, do not be wicked and cowardly. “The need to force you not to let our children get into the nuclear carnage for the whim of two people.”
Whereas in those of the city of Korça it is said: “In Lenin’s socialism there is only work, meetings, volunteers, a feast and fun with 10 pennies in the pocket. This socialism satisfies only 5 percent of the population, others are satisfied with fear. “We want to live like all other peoples and not just working animals.” Almost at the core of these things revolves the contents of all anonymous leaflets and letters.
Agitation and propaganda as a whole is most pronounced in Tirana, Shkodra, Kukes, Peshkopi, Lezha, Durres, Lushnja, Fier, Vlora, Saranda, Gjirokastra, Korca and Elbasan. The activity of some elements from the ranks of the intelligence and young people with reactionary origins or infected by bourgeois and revisionist propaganda stands out (so, for example, the expertise confirmed that the author of the anonymous leaflets that were thrown in Korça, is a forest engineer , who studied in Romania from 1949 to 1953, was once again convicted of attempted escape.Also, in some high schools there were writings with hostile content, written by professors or students.
Some intellectuals with hostile backgrounds try to instill the spirit of liberalism in art and culture. There have been cases when the events of liberalism in Czechoslovakia have been enthusiastically welcomed and their hopes for possible changes have been raised in our country as well; they preach that they only need one hand to change the situation. There have been cases as before, that have circulated pornographic materials with deeply immoral content, such as that of Ana Pavlova, which was read by teachers of the Llakatund school who went to Shkodra.
It should be noted that, even in the domestic correspondence that goes abroad, although compared to the past there seem to be improvements, as it deals better and more with the political and economic successes of our country, many racketeering elements who want to extortion, or of hostile origin, especially from the ranks of minorities in the districts of Gjirokastra and Saranda, write badly about the situation in our country.
They say: “We have no land at all, we work hard and earn little. Help us, otherwise death awaits us. We are barefoot and naked, we have ration and corn bread, we can no longer buy it. They are removing us from the cities and forcibly sending us to the village. We are stuck in the middle of the streets, we have no religion, we are all like animals, churches are made into horse stables, etc. ”
Sources of agitation and propaganda
As usual, the main source have served the shows and reactionary stations, press, letters, valuables, tourists and visitors from capitalist and revisionist countries as well as diplomats of these countries located in our country.
Our bodies have informed the Party Committees about all the above issues, have taken the necessary measures to detect and crack down on this activity and at the same time have fought towards the prevention of crimes.
DEPUTY MINISTER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS