Memorie.al publishes an archival document issued by the Central State Archive in Tirana (Fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP), which contains the political diary of the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the ALP, Enver Hoxha held in May 1961, where he recorded and analyzed some of the most important political events of that time that came after the breakdown of official relations of communist Albania with its great ally the Soviet Union of Nikita Hurshov, such as: the non-return of Albanian sailors studying in the Soviet Union, who were forced to go on hunger strike, the letter of the Soviet embassy in Tirana to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, informing them of the withdrawal of its sailors from the Naval Military Base of Vlora with 8 of 12 of their submarines, the incident in the Bay of Vlora where the Soviets accused that an Albanian ship ‘had stopped and returned the cannon to the Soviet civilian ship “Çiaturi” that had come to attract the families of sailors of the Soviet Union ‘, the incident with the Albanian Commercial Attaché in Prague, who had disappeared from his apartment and when our ambassador searched for him in the offices of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia, a deputy minister responded by saying that ” he had sought political asylum in Czechoslovakia ”, the incident with the Soviet vehicle in Vlora that had crushed an Albanian sailor, the confusion with the Russian sailors at the Vlora base who, while leaving, were taking empty fuel cans with them and robbing people. the other etc., etc.
“My comrades informed me that the Soviet general Andreyev, in the most vile, offensive and shouting way, fabricated, slandered and provoked, saying that ostensibly our guard ship in the bay of Vlora had stopped and returned the ball to the Soviet civilian ship. “Chiatura” that has come to attract the families of Soviet sailors’. The provocateur was put on the spot and at the same time a strict protest telegram was sent to Marshal Grecko, commander-in-chief of the Warsaw Pact forces. The Soviets are preparing vile provocations against us. We must be constantly vigilant and cool-headed”! This is what the Albanian communist leader Enver Hoxha wrote in his political diary kept in May 1961, where he recorded and analyzed some of the most important political events that came as a result of the breakdown of the official relations of communist Albania with the ally. it’s great, Nikita Hurshov’s Soviet Union. For more about this and all other events that took place at that time in Albania, as well as in the Soviet Union and other European countries, we know this document that Memorie.al publishes for the first time.
Enver Hoxha’s political diary in May 1961 on the breakdown of relations with the Soviet Union and incidents with Russian sailors at the Vlora Naval Base
2 MAY 1961
TITIS HAVE NOT GIVEN PLOTS AGAINST OUR COUNTRY
An article entitled “Why Rankovic goes to Athens” was published today in “Zeri e Popullit”? The visit to Athens of this savage anti-Albanian titist, I wrote in this article, is related to the failure of the joint conspiracy with the Greeks and the Americans against our country, a conspiracy which we denounced from the rostrum of the 4th Party Congress and with plotting other plots for the future.
POGRADEC, FRIDAY 5 MAY 1961
THE SOVIETS WANT TO REMOVE THE BASE OF VLORA
Friends from Tirana informed me of the Soviets’ vile letter regarding the removal of the Vlora base. We will decide how we will act.
POGRADEC, SATURDAY 6 MAY 1961
WE WILL ANSWER TO THE SOVIETS REGARDING THE ISSUE OF THE VLORA MARINE BASE
I talked to my friends and we decided on the note that would be handed over to the Soviets on the issue of the Vlora naval base.
THURSDAY 11 MAY 1961
Comrade Nesti Nase, our ambassador to Moscow, informed me about the political situation in the Soviet Union. Particularly scandalous was Khrushchev’s speech at the May 1 luncheon. His speech was hysterical, debauched, anti-Marxist, aggressive, anti-Albanian, anti-Chinese, threatening to the Soviet cadres themselves. All those present were scandalized. This shows the weak position of Nikita Khrushchev’s group. There is great dissatisfaction among the Soviet people, both for political issues and for the economic situation.
FRIDAY 12 MAY 1961
BISEDE ME NESTI NASEN
We had friend Nesti Nase for lunch. He spoke to us again about the honorable situation in Moscow, about the economic difficulties it has there, especially about food items. Nesti spoke to us again about what he saw at the reception given on the occasion of May 1, where Khrushchev spoke up 12 times as crazy, as disillusioned. Then he told us about the very good and combative attitude of our people learning in the Soviet Union. Nesti also spoke of the servility of the ambassadors of the countries of popular democracy to Khrushchev and the Soviet people, while Nesti Nesti hold a cold and scary attitude.
SUNDAY 14 MAY 1961
A CONVERSATION WITH THE CHINESE AMBASSADOR
I met with Chinese Ambassador Lo Shi Gao, who briefed me on the talks that Chu En Lai had had on May 10 with Soviet Ambassador Chernenko and Ten Pini with the adviser to the Soviet embassy in Beijing. The Soviets handed over to the Chinese the capture of the note, signed by Kosygin, that they sent us regarding the Vlora Naval Base. Chu En Lai and Ten Hsiao Pini have condemned the Soviet decision as a grave and disturbing mistake. They have not approved it. Ten Hsiao Pini, speaking of the ‘macihe’ responsibility of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China, said that when mistakes were made with Korea in 1956, Mao Zedong himself made self-criticism in front of his Korean comrades. I thanked Lo Shi Gaon for the information.
15 MAY 1961
SOVIETS ARE PREPARING BAD PROVOCATIONS AGAINST US
My friends informed me that the Soviet general Andreyev, in the most vile, offensive and shouting way, fabricated, slandered and provoked, saying that our guard ship in the Bay of Vlora allegedly ‘stopped and returned the ball to the Soviet civilian ship ” Çiaturi »who came to attract the families of Soviet sailors’. The provocateur was put on the spot and at the same time a strict protest telegram was sent to Marshal Grecko, commander-in-chief of the Warsaw Pact forces. The Soviets are preparing vile provocations against us. We must be constantly vigilant and cool-headed!
MONDAY 15 MAY 1961
TEME SEJKO AGENT AT THE SERVICE OF FOREIGNERS
The trial began against the traitorous group of Teme Sejko, agents in the service of the Greeks, Yugoslavs and Americans to overthrow the popular power in our country.
TUESDAY 16 MAY 1961
WE WILL WITHDRAW OUR MARINE OFFICERS STUDYING IN THE SOVIET UNION
Our military attaché in Moscow handed over to General Antonov the protest of our Minister of Defense and at the same time told him that we would withdraw our naval officers studying in the Soviet Union. Antonov twice said to our friend: “Why hurry, wait and some”, etc. This expression was repeated by General Gusevi. Our military attaché told him that I had orders for this and would act.
TUESDAY 16 MAY 1961
LET’S SEE WHAT THE SOVIETS ARE PREDISPOSITIONS
Tonight, the Soviet embassy in Tirana announced that tomorrow the Deputy Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union, Fir Jubin, will come from Moscow, with 10 people, as representatives of the Soviet side to participate in the commission we have proposed on the issue of the Vlora Base, which the Soviets have decided liquidate it. Let’s see what predispositions they have to come up with. I believe their predispositions are not good.
WEDNESDAY 17 MAY 1961
NEW PLANS AND INTRIGUES ARE HIDDEN HERE
The Soviets announced that they were postponing the arrival of their delegation headed by Firubin to participate in the commission on the issue of the naval base. Neither the date when it will come nor the reason why they pushed it, they did not give us. Of course, in the meantime there are plans and intrigues on the part of the Soviet leadership.
WEDNESDAY 17 MAY 1961
Our commercial attaché in Prague, mingled with Czech women and of course fallen into the Czechoslovak Security net, disappeared from his apartment. Our ambassador requested it at the offices of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There, a deputy minister responded by saying that “he had sought political asylum in Czechoslovakia” and that “they gave it to him”. Our ambassador protested vigorously for this hostile activity by the Czechoslovak authorities and demanded his surrender, but they refused. Fascist actions against our country by these pseudo-Marxists continue.
THURSDAY 18 MAY 1961
DEMAGOGICAL MANOVORS OF THE SOVIET
The Soviet Embassy in Tirana announced that a delegation led by Firjubin was coming today. She also submitted the answer to our note on the issue of the Vlora naval base. With this note, as with the others, the Soviets try to make us responsible for removing the base and so on. But in the end, the path is left open (which they do for demagoguery, to have it as an official document), to make it clear that they can accept our proposal and withdraw in some way from the decision that was taken of them at the Warsaw Pact meeting in Moscow. The Soviet delegation came. It also includes General Antonov, First Deputy Chief of General Staff of the Soviet Army and Navy, and Admiral Kasatonov, commander of the Black Sea Fleet.
FRIDAY 19 MAY 1961
WE WILL STAND LIKE GRANITE ROCK TO THE SOVIET TROCKISTO-FASCISTS
The Trotskyist-fascists of Moscow today crossed every border. Our navy officers have locked them in barracks, not allowing them to go out or return home. They did not allow our military attaché to contact them and “ordered” him to leave Leningrad. Nor do bourgeois governments do such a thing. Here comes the work! We protested vigorously. We suspended the meeting of the Albanian-Soviet commission on the issue of the naval base of Vlora, which opened today, at 11 o’clock. The Trotskyist-fascists of Moscow will surely go even further. But we too will stand like a granite rock, expose them and defeat them, that we are right, that we follow the Marxist-Leninist path.
SATURDAY 20 MAY 1961
The treacherous Kremlin clique continues its vile provocations. This clique expelled our military attaché to Moscow as an undesirable person, seeking to leave the Soviet Union within 24 hours. Today we will protest vigorously and demand as a countermeasure the departure of the Soviet military attaché from Albania within 24 hours. To what abyss do these Trotskyists seek to lead our relations like this? However, they will fail. We remain loyal to the friendship with the peoples of the Soviet Union. In bad times good friends are known. Our unwavering and principled attitude is a great help to the people of the Soviet Union and at the moment we are the only ones giving this help to them. Whatever happens, the Soviet peoples will not forget this help. Yesterday Firjubini “with his lips on gas” and flattered, together with the Soviet ambassador, went to Halim Budoja to “thank” him for the “care” shown for the Soviet delegation, etc., and finally let them know that they are waiting for start talks. Halim also welcomed him well and repeated the reasons for the suspension. Firjubin said that he did not believe it would have happened like this, etc., but yesterday afternoon, Firjubin went to Behari and made a statement, by the Soviet government, that no obstacle would be made to our officers to return home. . In a word, the Soviets, before our right, bowed in shame. They are acting like gangsters.
SUNDAY 21 MAY 1961
The German Ambassador submitted her government’s response to our letter based on Vlora. In every sense of the word, these are fascists and provocateurs.
MONDAY 22 MAY 1961
The meeting of the Soviet-Albanian commission for the naval base of Vlora took place. Each side presented its views. The meeting continues tomorrow. The Soviets, after the scandal they made in Leningrad, allowed the departure of our navy officers. There is no river to “wash away” this vileness. The Chinese ambassador handed us the copy of the letter that the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China made to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union regarding our naval base and the attitude of the Soviets towards us. The letter defends our views and is a slap in the face to Khrushchev’s group. The Czechs are showing their really dirty face, continuing provocations. The Bulgarians also submitted their vile response regarding the Vlora naval base. The time will come for them to lick what they say now against us.
TUESDAY 23 MAY 1961
WE WILL STAY STRONGLY IN OUR POSITIONS
The meeting of the Albanian-Soviet commission for the Vlora base continues. Both sides stand in their positions. The Soviets follow their avaz by attacking us. We stand firm in our positions. The Soviets called ours for lunch. The conversation was about time, mountains, forests, and gardens. The meeting will continue tomorrow. We will deliver another talk, measured as ever, but sharp and definitive.
TUESDAY 23 MAY 1961
THE FIRST GROUP OF OUR MARINE OFFICERS WHO WERE IN THE SOVIET UNION RETURNED TO THE COUNTRY
The first group of our naval officers came from Leningrad. The officers were greeted at the airport with flowers by their fellow officers and by Skanderbegs. The Soviet military attaché, Rura, left Tirana today, expelled from us, as a countermeasure to the expulsion of our attaché from the Soviet Union.
WEDNESDAY 24 MAY 1961
WITHDRAWAL OF THE SOVIETS
At today’s meeting of the commission, after the speech by our side, the Soviets withdrew. They accepted our view and will leave the day after tomorrow, May 26, at 8 o’clock, with 8 of the 12 submarines and the Kotelnikov naval base. The officers of the Soviet delegation appeared more open. Ours had them for lunch, which went well, there was also talk of politics. Ours were superior, those in retreat. Our officers who were in the Soviet Union and who returned, have maintained a wonderful attitude, ardent patriotism on their part, left a reputation in Leningrad. Leningrad learned of the atrocities committed by the Soviet command. This is very important.
THURSDAY 25 MAY 1961
The Soviet delegation to the commission on the issue of the Vlora base continued the tricks again. Today Firjubinka said that “I have no instructions from the government” to withdraw exactly that part of the Soviet sailors of the four submarines that will remain at the base and that are in contact with our sailor’s day and night, and that’s alleged quarrels have arisen the “lawsuit”. For him this “is another matter”, while for us it is “Nastradin’s nail” for new provocations. On the other hand, Soviet sailors are pulling their luggage from these submarines and getting ready to leave. I believe that this is the last bullet of pressure and provocation at the base, it is like saying the “salute” of meanness. Meanwhile the ships get ready to leave tomorrow morning.
FRIDAY 26 MAY 1961
A SHAMEFUL DATE FOR THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT
The eight submarines and the “Kotelnikov” base left Vlora at 8 o’clock this morning. Shameful date for the Soviet government that brought things up here. This has been, after all, a vicious act hatched against Albania. But there is nothing! We will overcome these difficulties. The justice of our attitudes will not be hidden for long by these vile revisionists. They left behind “Nastradin’s nail”. We asked with a note to withdraw all Soviet sailors from the Bay of Vlora. We asked with two letters, one after the other, for the joint commission to convene. They agreed in principle, but did not rush to set the time and day.
27 MAY 1961 1961
THE HYPOCRISY AND SUBJECTIVITY OF SOVIET REVISIONISTS HAVE NO LIMITS
The Soviet ambassador went back to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs today “to protest” the expulsion of the Soviet military attaché, Colonel Rura, and to say that our sailors “were not locked up in barracks in the Soviet Union”, etc. What hypocrisy! What a lie! How vile! The officers of our navy, who returned to their homeland, showed one by one the atrocities committed against them by the Soviet authorities in Leningrad. Our sailors also declared a 24-hour hunger strike. The filthy actions of these revisionists do not even wash the seawater. Admiral Kasatonov himself comes from Tirana to Vlora. Let’s see what vileness they plot. The commission is not yet meeting, and the Soviets are not setting a date or time.
SUNDAY 28 MAY 1961
BETWEEN ANARCHY, CONFUSION AND ROBBERY, SOVIET SAILORS ARE PREPARING TO LEAVE
Firjubin went to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and announced that the Soviet delegation was leaving today. Ours made him responsible for leaving without finishing work and without withdrawing the Soviet sailors who remained in Vlora. He flew away. As these squabbles took place, the Soviets were basically loading the loot. Terrible! The issue has reached the point where even the empty fuel cans pull, even 50 kg. soap. Apparently, the remaining Soviet sailors will leave with the cargo steamers that are here. They have packed their bags and are completely demoralized. Anarchy and confusion reign between them, they are robbing each other. It really is to cry!
MONDAY 29 MAY 1961
THE PROVOCATORS ARE VERY ALARMED ALARMED
General Andreyev, this chief provocateur, requested a meeting with our Minister of Defense and with extremely low slander protested as if our sailors had allegedly checked the pockets of a Soviet sailor, etc. They are preparing an “escape passport”, plotting “facts” that the lives of Soviet sailors have allegedly become impossible. But this morning a Soviet car crushed one of our sailors, who is in critical condition in hospital. The provocateurs are on alert and very worried. This is the result of the hateful political lectures that Soviet generals and admirals have long held against Soviet sailors against our country and army. There will be a strict protest on our part./Memorie.al