Memorie.al/ publishes some archival documents extracted from the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP), where the political diary of Enver Hoxha in the period March-April 1981 is located, when demonstrations and protests began mass of the people of Kosovo, who rose up to demand their legitimate rights and freedoms, just as the other nationalities and nations that made up the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had and enjoyed. The entire political diary of the main leader of communist Albania, where he and the official Tirana of that time, closely followed the events of Kosovo and spoke openly in public, coming out openly in defense of our Kosovar brothers across the border who lived for centuries in the lands their ethnic groups, who rose up to demand their legitimate rights and freedoms as they had and enjoyed the other nationalities and nations of Yugoslavia at the time, and accusing official Belgrade of the discriminatory policies pursued by the Titoist regime until at the time against Kosovo and the entire Albanian population living under Yugoslavia, and also accusing the Kosovo leadership of being “pro-Tito”, and “sold to the Belgrade leadership”. But contrary to that attitude, the communist regime of Enver Hoxha since 1949 when official Tirana
“According to news agencies, in Pristina and Podujeva, yesterday and today, students, who were joined by workers, erupted in demonstrations and other clashes, more furious than the first. The situation has become very honorable. Yugoslav authorities surrounded Pristina with tanks. Large Serbian police and militia forces have arrived in Kosovo from Belgrade. The state of siege was declared, the circulation in groups was stopped and the trenches of the Titoite Lacanes began, from Fadil Hoxha, Xhavit Nimani, Asllan Fazllija and others. What they did not say against the demonstrators, they used all the words contained in the Titoist dictionary, made the dirtiest accusations: “Albanian nationalists”, “irredentists”, “informbureaux”, “agents of imperialism”, “ballists”, etc. After swearing and accusations against Albanian students, hosanara for Tito, for Titoism, for self-government and for “Kosovo’s victories”. After the hosanars for titism, deceptive promises “we will do this”, “we will do it”, “there are difficulties, but the world crisis is to blame” etc. Finally, numerous arrests and threats of even greater retaliation. “It is clear that Kosovars are oppressed, miserable, bloodied by Serbs and Titoism.”
This is what the former main leader of communist Albania, Enver Hoxha, wrote in his diary of April 3, 1981, focusing on the events in Kosovo, which at that time was the Autonomous Province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. , where only a few months after the death of Marshal Josof Broz Tito (May 4, 1980), who ruled the country for almost 35 years since the end of World War II, in the Yugoslavia he left behind, the riots would begin. such as the mass demonstrations and protests of the people of Kosovo, who rose up to demand their legitimate rights and freedoms, just as the other nationalities and nations that made up the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had and enjoyed passed until the calls “Kosovo Republic”.
As it is already known, which we will see from these archival documents where the political diary of Enver Hoxha, the main leader of communist Albania and official Tirana, is located, they closely followed the events in Kosovo and spoke publicly, coming out openly in defense of our Kosovar brothers across the border who have lived for centuries in their ethnic lands and accusing official Belgrade of the discriminatory policy it had pursued until then against Kosovo and the entire Albanian population living under Yugoslavia, and also accusing the leadership of Kosovo as “pro-Tito”, and “sold to the leadership of Belgrade”.
But contrary to what he said in words, he never did it with deeds and the attitude that official Tirana held towards the events of Kosovo in the spring of ’81, seems to have been just enough for the facade and only for public consumption in the international arena, as the regime Enver Hoxha’s communist regime from 1949, when official Tirana broke off relations with Marshal Tito’s Yugoslavia, until the end of the 1980s, pursued a policy towards Kosovars who came to Albania to escape the persecution of the Titoist regime. even more cruel to them, imprisoning, torturing and interning them, with the accusations of “UDB agents”! Likewise, although in the events of the spring of 1981 and onwards, official Tirana ostensibly supported the demonstrations of the people of Kosovo and their demands for a “Kosovo Republic”, Enver Hoxha would never want that to become a reality. because in a way, two Albanian states would be created, where Kosovo would become a factor and Albania under his leadership, would be defactorized in the international arena. In this context, immediately after those events, official Tirana intensified the persecution and violence against Kosovars who were in Albania, arresting and sentencing to prison some Kosovar intellectuals, such as: Selim Kelmendi, Estref Kelmendi, Shefqet Kelmendi, Naim Lucin, etc., who were arrested in 1983, accused of “attempting to assassinate the main leader, Enver Hoxha, during his visit to the Museum” Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu “in Kruja in 1980”.
And all this was done to lower the reputation of Kosovars and Kosovo in the eyes of the Albanians of the homeland. However, these remain the object of analysis that are not the object of this article, where we are publishing only the political diary of Enver Hoxha, which he kept in that period of time, which Memorie.al publishes for the first time and in full, starting from the number today.
Enver Hoxha’s political diary on the events of demonstrations and protests of the people of Kosovo in the spring of 1981
1 APRIL 1981
STRONG POLITICAL DEMONSTRATIONS IN KOSOVO
From the reports given by foreign news agencies, we learn that strong demonstrations broke out in Kosovo today, especially by the Albanian students of the University of Prishtina. According to these agencies, one or two people were killed during the clashes with the police. The casualties from the students and the police are many. It is also said that dozens of students were arrested and that they are being tortured. Demonstrations have taken place twice during the last ten days of March and both times they have been violently dispersed. The first time the Yugoslav leadership did not speak, the second time it erupted against the demonstrators with slanderous accusations and various epithets, as well as with rankovich violence, as in the past. Students are said to have complained about the poor food situation in the university dormitory canteens, as well as the neglect of Kosovo’s economy. But, as things stand, the demonstration has taken on a political character. In fact, as it is said, the students shouted: “We want Kosovo to become a republic”.
2 APRIL 1981
THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO IS EXACTING
The situation in Kosovo is getting worse. Student clashes with police increase. The state of siege has been declared.
3 APRIL 1981
NEW AND STRONG FIGHTS IN KOSOVO CITIES
According to news agencies in Pristina and Podujeva, yesterday and today, students, joined by workers, erupted in demonstrations and other clashes, more furious than the first. The situation has become very honorable. Yugoslav authorities surrounded Pristina with tanks. Large Serbian police and militia forces have arrived in Kosovo from Belgrade. The state of siege was declared, the circulation in groups was stopped and the trenches of the Titoite Lacanes began, from Fadil Hoxha, Xhavit Nimani, Asllan Fazllija and others. What they did not say against the demonstrators, they used all the words contained in the Titoist dictionary, made the dirtiest accusations: “Albanian nationalists”, “irredentists”, “informbureaux”, “agents of imperialism”, “ballists”, etc. After swearing and accusations against Albanian students, hosanara for Tito, for Titoism, for self-government and for “Kosovo’s victories”. After the hosanars for titism, deceptive promises “we will do this”, “we will do it”, “there are difficulties, but the world crisis is to blame” etc. Finally, numerous arrests and threats of even greater retaliation. It is clear that Kosovars are oppressed, miserable, bloodied by Serbs and Titoism. Now, it seems, they have judged that the cup was filled and that it was the opportune moment to claim the rights that were denied to them. As we hear and learn from the information of foreign news agencies, foreign radios and television, why we have no finger in this work, in this matter there was poor organization, but also foreign elements that have manipulated. The foreign agency is not excluded either, but, in the last analysis, I think that these, at the moment, are not interested in so much turmoil, especially in Yugoslavia. The real reasons must be sought and found in the internal factor, in the failed self-government, in the big debts, in the rise in prices, in inflation, in unemployment, in the misery of the masses, as well as in the national problems that have been solved in the most chauvinistic way by titism. All these evils aggravate more at the expense of the Albanians living in their lands in Yugoslavia. The manipulation of the large Serbian agency against the system itself, the Croatian separatists, etc., who found the territory of Kosovo as the weakest link of the Yugoslav Federation, cannot be ruled out. However, what happened in Kosovo was a heavy blow to the Titoists who want to give the world the impression that “in Yugoslavia everything is settled right” – the national question, socialism, democracy, stability, etc., etc. Their whole system smells …
4 APRIL 1981
TITIS BELIEVE WITH KOSOVO DEMONSTRATORS
Yesterday morning, on April 3, we returned from Vlora with Nexhmija and the children. The events in Kosovo have preoccupied and worried me a lot, why the filthy Yugoslav Titoists, according to the news agencies, have attacked with the wildest means the people and the students who peacefully demanded the improvement of their living conditions and the status of the republic for Kosovo in the framework of the Yugoslav Federation.
5 APRIL 1981
POLITICAL BUREAU DISCUSSES EVENTS IN KOSOVO
I called a meeting of the Politburo, where we discussed the recent events in Kosovo and the measures we need to take. All the comrades fully agreed with the proposal I made to write a strict article against the violence of the Yugoslav Serbs against the people of Kosovar students, as well as with the theses I had prepared for it. We decided to publish the article as soon as possible. I gave Ramiz some theses.
7 APRIL 1981
WHAT GOD DRAGOSAVAC SAYS AND DENIES
Mr. Dusan Dragosavac, you, in your speech, which took place on April 3, rightly say in one place: “Experience has shown that we have constantly suffered when we neglected the moments that were presented to us as historic.” This “valuable” advice you give is not only appropriate for the leadership of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but it is also a reminder for the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania, it is not only a recommendation for the Serbian people, but also for the Albanian people. living on its own lands in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. But we want to emphasize, on this occasion, that you have left nothing in oblivion and did not want to see history as it should be viewed, so that the bitter past does not repeat itself. Mr. Dusan Dragosavac, in this speech you also say the following: “We have resolved in the best possible way the issue of nationalities of national republics and, in the framework of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, the issue of autonomous provinces.” This statement of yours shows that, even after the National Liberation War of the peoples of Yugoslavia, the old history was not forgotten; Kosovo remained “an autonomous province” of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and the compact Albanian population, both by nationality and by territory, was divided between the three republics of the Yugoslav Federation. Why this was done, you have to explain ideologically, politically, geographically and economically. If such an analysis were made, then one could judge the value of your affirmations when you say: “We have resolved in the best possible way the issues of nationalities and national republics.” Mr. Dragosavac, in continuation of your views, that you have supposedly solved the issues of nationalities correctly, you continue to say in your speech: “However, it would be an illusion to think that we have solved this in a stable and perfect way and that there will be no transnational problems. ” Clearly, you claim that “you have not solved in a consistent and perfect way” this complex problem of nations. It must then be concluded that the peoples who make up Yugoslavia must make efforts to perfect these problems. So, it is up to the people of Yugoslavia to resolve and refine these democratically, within the framework of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Specifically: the overwhelming Albanian population living in Kosovo and other Yugoslav republics, demands within the norms, but also on the streets, that the province of Kosovo be liberated from the tutelage of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, it demands recognition of the status of a republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. What crime did the people of Kosovo commit with this request, as described by the leadership of the Socialist Federation of Yugoslavia and some key leaders of the province of Kosovo? We judge that she did not commit any crime. On the contrary, we find that these legitimate demands have been underestimated, called hostile, and achieved in the demonstrations that took place. The Albanian people of Kosovo have never been allowed to express themselves freely and democratically on the status they should have, within the Yugoslav laws and constitution, of the province in which they reside. Other persons decided on this and, after many peaceful demands, when he loudly demanded that the brotherly peoples of Yugoslavia hear that Kosovo was seeking the status of a republic within the framework of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, those who made a deaf ear, did not hesitate to attack with tanks and shoot at Albanians. Not only that, but the brave Kosovar students accused them of ostensibly acting like Chicago gangsters and putting the little kalamans ahead. These dirty habits may be qualities of others, but never of Albanians who have fought and continue to fight with the square palate. Such a statement by the Yugoslav press clearly proves the opposite, that the demonstrations were popular and peaceful. It also hints that, if it were not for the crowd of students, the Serbian police would have crushed them with machine guns. These are not easily forgotten and do not show strength but weakness, do not show maturity but confusion. Issues must be judged with objectivity and justice and not achieved until all the peoples of Yugoslavia, with all the leaderships of all ranks at the forefront, are attacked, attacked, cursed, beaten, killed, maimed and imprisoned. beautiful and brave, the Albanian youth of Kosovo and other Albanian areas. It is neither in the honor nor in the interest of Yugoslavia to pour half of the Serbian police and Belgrade militia over Kosovo, armed to the teeth, to surround the cities of Kosovo with tanks, to cover the skies with planes and to fill the airfields with parachutists. No, that should not stick. We strongly condemn this unprecedented violence in Kosovo. The real causes of the situation must be found, but these are not in Kosovo, nor in the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania, as there are allusions and implications. They must be sought and found deeper, above, in subjective and objective reasons. Seeking to intimidate a people with monstrous epithets and tanks, as is being done with Albanians living in their own lands in Yugoslavia, can never achieve the goal. With the Albanians of Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and those who have emigrated from misery and unemployment, we should talk openly, calmly, with reason and not with bad prejudices, and have all the rights and equality complete within the constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Every proposal, every request, every just claim of the Albanians, who live in Yugoslavia, but who do not like and disturb the comfort of the federal and provincial leadership, qualify without hesitation “hostile, Albanian chauvinist, irredentist”, etc. Everything, every protest against the injustices that have been done and are being done to the Albanians living on their lands in Yugoslavia, and they are neither few nor small, enters these offensive channels. What does the hostile epithet “nationalists” mean to the Yugoslavs? The word nationalist comes from the word nation, which means nation, nationality. Every dictionary, big or small, clearly explains this notion. The word nation-nationality, which means nation-nationality, is kept by the Yugoslavs orally and on paper, written in black and white. When you try to deny a nation its nationality, sovereignty and all the attributes that flow from them, then the words it utters are just demagoguery and cause and create friction that can even lead to undesirable and dangerous confrontations. If you try to oppress a people and destroy its national traditions and aspirations, then you will definitely encounter a self-defense reaction. Only Marxism-Leninism and scientific socialism, according to the theory of Marx, Lenin and Stalin, solve these problems correctly. In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and especially in the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and in the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo and wherever Albanians live, it has gone so far as to create a “Muslim nationality”. “Muslim nationality” is a specificity of Yugoslavia, but for Yugoslavia there is no “Orthodox Christian nationality” nor “Roman Catholic nationality”! No explanation is needed for this, it is easily explained. It is clear why Dobrivoje Vidic, President of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and member of the Presidency of the Central Committee of the Communist League of Serbia, after casting the greatest bitterness and resentment on Kosovo, spoke “especially about the relationship of full equality in decision-making. on all issues of social importance in the framework of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, in which the autonomous socialist provinces have full independence guaranteed and defined in the constitutional documents of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and the Autonomous Socialist Province”. (“Full” autonomy under tutelage.) It is meaningful that any action of Kosovo Albanians, within the constitution and laws of the Federation, but which does not please the leadership, is immediately considered “Albanian chauvinist” and, to put them in in prisons and concentration camps, people are easily branded as “irredentists”. To accuse an irredentism of a people and a whole nation, of more than 2 million inhabitants, such as the part of the Albanian nation living in its lands in Yugoslavia, you must not have been and not be an irredentist and have disappeared all the causes and sources of this doctrine, causes which are the offspring of the imperialists and of the old Balkan feudal-bourgeoisie. If after the National Liberation War, the principle of self-determination of peoples was applied, then why should there be irredentism? Before talking about the so-called irredentism, we must explain the economic and cultural backwardness, inflation, mass unemployment and forced emigration of Albanians, one of the largest emigrations of Yugoslavia to foreign countries. This great problem is not solved correctly and is not explained only by the “world crisis”, as some Yugoslav leaders, ostensibly theorists of the Yugoslav Socialist Federation and the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, want to explain. As far as chauvinism is concerned, the character of the Albanian and his history over the centuries show the opposite of what you accuse the Albanians of Yugoslavia of, why the Albanian has never oppressed and exploited any people. He has never invaded and divided the lands of other peoples. The opposite has happened to them. Therefore, ask for chauvinism that you will find elsewhere and not in the Albanians of Kosovo or in those of the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania that constitute a people. Seek chauvinism precisely from those Yugoslav leaders who ordered the attack with Serbian tanks and police and killed, bled, bloodied, tortured and imprisoned Albanian students, workers and peasants, the grandchildren of the heroes of our people, Isa Boletini, Bajram Curri, Abdyl and Naim Frashëri , Sulejman Vokshi, Ymer Prizren, Azem e Shote Galica, Çerçiz Topulli and Selam Salaria, brothers and comrades of Hajdar Dushi, Hysni Kapos, Miladin Popovi,, Emin Duraku and thousands of heroic Albanian, Montenegrin and Macedonian partisans who fought and fought their blood in Yugoslavia for the freedom, independence and self-determination of the peoples of Yugoslavia. These brutal and bloody acts constitute the fiercest chauvinism. Do you want the Albanian not to be a patriot? No, this will never happen! The Albanian has always defended himself with heroism and defeated his enemies, because he has always been in his own right. The Albanian, wherever he lives, works and fights, always shows maturity and patience. The centuries-old history of the Albanians and that of the time of the National Liberation War have proved that our people have shed the blood of their sons and daughters to come to the aid of the neighboring brotherly peoples. You call this high spirit of sacrifice and internationalism chauvinistic. The smallest thing we can say is this shamelessness and let no one forget that the Albanian people are really patient, but when their rights are violated and when the Albanian gets angry, the stone also catches fire. For these problems we think that the Yugoslav leadership should be very prudent, show maturity, composure and study and solve its internal problems correctly and not give abundant lessons to others «for moderation, for peaceful solutions, for human and peoples’ rights »and others. We think that the bloodshed should be reduced, by the Yugoslav leaders in the first place, and the issues of the Albanians living in their lands in Yugoslavia should be studied with composure, wisdom and justice. If it was done differently, the wound will not heal, on the contrary, the gap will deepen. We do not want this to happen and we are ready to help with all our pure and noble forces, of heart and mind, to maintain the friendship with the brotherly peoples of Yugoslavia, to maintain the good neighborly relations that have been established and to We continue to assist our Albanian brothers in trade and cultural exchanges, as we do with the other peoples of Yugoslavia, Montenegro, Macedonia, etc., on the basis of agreements reached jointly between the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania and the Socialist Republic. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This is what the interest of our two countries wants, the friendship, the good neighborliness, without interfering at any moment in each other’s internal affairs. If we express our thoughts on what happened in Kosovo, it does not mean that we are the causes or instigators of those events that are happening there. We have said and are saying that we will take care of our Albanian brothers living in their lands in Yugoslavia, we will protect them, as we have protected them, when injustice and wickedness are done to them. Just as Yugoslavia and every other state has the right to protect and demand the rights of its national minorities, so do we. The Treaty of London, the Treaty of Versailles and any other imperialist treaty no longer passes on the backs of the Albanian people. This should be clear to everyone, friends and enemies, small and large states, imperialists and revisionists, communist comrades and progressive people, as well as anti-communists and pseudo-socialists. / Memorie.al
Continues in the next issue