Av. ALFDRED DUKA
– THE FORECAST MURDER OF A CLERGYMAN OF THE RENAISSANCE –
Memorie.al / Before we begin to briefly analyze the investigative and judicial file in charge of the defendant Shtjefën Kurti and others, for the reader we will make a parenthesis of the right and its history in human society, with the goal of coming to our criminal and procedural law, from its beginnings and throughout the years of the dictatorship.
Continues from last issue
A review of the first trial, to understand the second trial
For several days in a row, you conducted the criminal trial against the defendants: Shtjefën Kurti, Mark Marku, Agostin Preçi, Pjetër Biba, Zef Nishi and Fran Noci, accused of hostile activity against the People’s Power, according to articles 72 and 73 of the Criminal Code as well as against the defendant Ndue Loti, accused according to articles 73/1 and 80/1 of the Penal Code.
The transitional period from capitalism to socialism, through which our country is successfully passing, is not a period of peace, but a period of wars and efforts of our people under the leadership of the Party to preserve the victories achieved and to ensure new victories.
Comrade Enver teaches us that: “The path followed by the people and the Party to build socialism was by no means a square with flowers. It has been a difficult but glorious path, which has required all the talent, all the courage and heroism, all the strength and perseverance of the people and of our Labor Party…! All this road was covered under the conditions of a fierce class war, under furious attacks and conspiracies of internal and external enemies.
Our ruling party, with the support of the entire people, defeated and liquidated one after another the aggressive plans and provocations of the Anglo-American imperialists, groups of spies and saboteurs, various opportunists, who tried to lead the country to the path of bourgeois development and dependence on foreign capital, the plots of Titistas and Koçi Xoxes with friends, to subjugate the
Albanian Party to make the 7th Republic of Yugoslavia. The provocations of the Greek monarcho-fascists of August 1949, the countless saboteurs who were thrown into our country by sea, land and air.
Even the criminal activity of these defendants is nothing more than a harsh manifestation of the class war, an attempt and at the same time an obstacle of the enemy element to restrain or unbridle our march forward.
Although difficult, although there has been a period of wars, the successes achieved by our country are magnificent. To bring out the greatness of the successes of our people, let’s refer to the past, the difficult situation in which our people had remained, under the conditions of feudal-bourgeois exploitation and foreign capitalists and conquerors.
In pre-liberation Albania, the worker worked 10, 12, 14 hours a day and with the income he provided, he did not even have enough to make ends meet, the peasant, although he worked day and night, watched as the children died of hunger before his eyes and diseases, the land was the property of the bejlers and the agallars and the peasant worked it for the bey and again. 80% of the population was without school.
For every 100 inhabitants, 18 died and for every two births, one died. The average lifespan was about 39 years. There were more churches, mosques, tombs and mosques than schools or hospitals. The villages lacked potable water, roads, electric lights and kerosene lamps. As for tractors, cars, means of transport, there was no question, as for residential houses, for radios, for bathrooms and canteens, gardens and Hearts of Culture. The whole district of Kruja had 12 primary schools and about 1000 students and 25 teachers, compared to the 41 schools and 700 teachers it has today. At that time, only one doctor served in the entire district of Kruja, while today only Gurëzi has its own doctor.
This was more or less, and in broad strokes, the situation in which the anti-popular regimes had led our country, and on these bases, the people and the Party started the work after the liberation of the country. During these years of popular power, the appearance of our homeland is completely new, due to the great changes that have occurred in all spheres of social and economic life, cultural, educational, technical, etc.
Albania, from a backward agricultural country, has been transformed into an industrial agricultural country that resolutely walks the path of building a complete socialist society. In 1970, the general production increased compared to pre-war 12 times. What was produced in 1938, today is produced in less than a week, what was produced in 1950, today is produced in less than 1 month and the industrial production of 1960, today is produced in less than 5 months.
In agriculture, as a result of mechanisms, reclamation works and other organizational measures, in 1970 it was produced more than 3 times, compared to 1938. What was produced in 1938, today is produced only in 4 districts of the Republic as: Fieri, Lushnja, Durrësi and Vlora. In 1970, the number of students in schools was 661,000, compared to 56,000 in 1938. Health care is free and the number of medical personnel serving the people has increased incomparably.
Only in Durrës today there are more doctors than Albania had in 1938. The average life expectancy of a person reached 68 years, which is among the highest levels in Europe. In Albania, the electrification of the country was completely completed, in the village, look at the electric lights, cultural centers, canteens, bathrooms, laundries, nurseries and gardens, roads, water pipes were built everywhere, new residential houses were built equipped with furniture such as beds, radios, etc.
Precisely, such a state of economic, cultural, educational, health development, etc., the enemies of our country, as well as these defendants, try to distort it for the purposes of their hostile propaganda. Precisely such a healthy situation and incomparable with the past, we look at and judge the activity of the defendants Shtjefen Kurti, Mark Marku, Agustin Preçi, and others, this activity has its own characteristics and from which the relevant lessons should be drawn for the continuous further improvement of the work of the Party in all directions.
First, in this hostile activity, the reactionary Catholic Clergy, represented by former priest Shtjefen Kurti, as always in this case, played a leading role. The history of our country has proved day by day that most of the clergy have acted in a conscientious manner, as loyal servants of the Vatican, as tools in the service of the inverted classes, of the invaders and of foreign spies.
Even before the fascist occupation, the factional clergy prepared the conditions for the fascist occupation. The seminary of Jesus and the archbishops became a center where fascist ideology openly dominated. After the occupation of Albania by Italy, the clergy in general, and the Catholic clergy in particular, were closely connected with the Italian invaders and after the capitulation of Italy, with German Nazism.
After the liberation of the country, a large part were put in the service of foreign agencies and served them with the greatest zeal and loyalty. That the hand of the Catholic Clergy represented by Father Gjon Shllaku, Father Gjovalin Pausti and Father Danjel Dajani, who at the head of the traitorous organization “Albanian Union” and in cooperation with external and internal enemies, prepared the uprising of September 1946 Later, the clergy became the support of gangs of criminals and saboteurs.
They turned churches and chapels from places of preaching into nurseries where saboteurs and criminals found shelter, into true weapon depots. 3-4 years ago, the hostile activity of priests was discovered: Zef Bici, Mark Dushi, Frano Ilija, etc., while the freshest case is that of the defendant Shtjefën Kurti, who, as you heard, was the spiritual instigator of to the other defendants, through the revolutionary slogan: “Steal and take your toil and sweat”.
So, there are countless examples that prove what Comrade Enver Hoxha said: Catholic clergy (with the exception of patriotic priests) have always been connected with the external enemies of our people, with foreign criminals and anti-popular regimes and have been put in their service. These have been tools of the Turks, of the Austro-Hungarians, of Italian fascism, of German Nazism, of the Vatican, and of American and English imperialism.
Some clerics, for no moment, have not considered themselves Albanians, but as citizens of the Vatican and its agents in Albania”. Apart from this, religion is a demagoguery, a true lie, an idealistic worldview where everything is linked to the existence of a supernatural force, such as God, while the priests are God’s delegates on earth. Taking advantage of this worldview, which was deeply embedded in people’s minds, the clergy deceived the people, turning them into blind believers of religious dogmas and then used them for their evil purposes.
Despite the successes that have been achieved in the work of educating people with a materialistic scientific worldview, with all the destruction and disappearance of religious institutions such as mosques, churches, etc., again in people’s thoughts, behaviors and attitudes, manifestations of the religious worldview are manifested, which hinder the progress of our society.
In these conditions, it is understood how necessary it is to increase revolutionary vigilance in order to eliminate any hostile activity of the reactionary clergy and, at the same time, how necessary it is to work to unmask the reactionary character of religion and the clergy. as a tool in the service of the inverted classes and the external enemies of our country.
Second: The criminal activity of these defendants, in the last analysis, was aimed at the destruction of the agricultural cooperative mainly, by means of thefts to the detriment of the common property, seeing this activity separately, it turns out that it was generally the same. , continuous, systematic, in which, in addition to the defendants, a number of other people were also implicated who, based on purely personal interest, touched the cooperative property. So, looking at the problem from the point of view of the breadth of the circle of persons involved in the crime, as well as from the point of view of the continuous time of the criminal activity, the dangerousness of the act committed by the defendants is clearly visible.
In the conditions of our popular power, where the property is in the hands of the working masses, where the exploitation of man by man has disappeared, when all people are interested in the preservation and the state of the common property, the theft of this property is a manifestation, in which they encounter they rarely come and decrease.
The characteristic in our country is the love and care to preserve the property from any punishment and violation, the perseverance and mobility in the work to increase the common property, the acts of heroism and the spirit of sacrifice to protect and abolish it. All these prove that in the great educational and persuasive work that the Party is doing with the people, a new man has been created who stands out for a socialist attitude towards the common property.
Despite the fact that in these agricultural cooperatives there have been frequent cases of theft, also instigated by the enemy element, it proves that they work for the ideological education of the members in order to awaken and strengthen in the cooperative measure the feeling of preservation and increase of the common property. we must pay special attention to it in the future.
The Party organization, the organizations of the masses, all the communists should better grasp the issue of property protection. Everywhere, a suffocating environment must be created against the elements that steal and waste the common property. On the other hand, revolutionary vigilance has increased, a guard must be raised to protect this property, not only the leadership of the cooperative, the brigades, the guards or the persons charged with such duties, but the entire mass of the cooperative.
This is the surest guarantee to keep the common wealth intact. Such a situation must be created where every evil element, before acting, should think carefully that it is not one or a few eyes, but thousands of eyes that are watching him step by step, and from this eye of the people, he can never save himself. To fight the manifestations of indifference that pop up from time to time.
Organizational measures play an important role in property preservation. The choice of the element that is based on the preservation and administration of the property should be given great care. Do not put such as warehouse, brigadier, guard, transporter, etc., people of the type: Luigj Vates, Gjok Markut, Diles, Marash Prekes, Zef Pali, Beqiri, Mark Marku, Pjetër Bibes, Pjetër Nishit, etc., because this is the same as hanging the wolf’s liver around its neck.
In these tasks, people should be appointed who, apart from doing the work, are at the same time honest, uncompromised and who care about the common property. And there are many such people everywhere. Also, give due importance to the movement of goods, agricultural products, from the field to the warehouse, from the warehouse to the mill, to the oven or to the market. Strictly apply all state rules on the circulation of goods, because in every violation of these rules, it forms a loophole that the enemy and evil element exploits as best as this group has exploited, to achieve its goals criminal.
Do not underestimate the implementation of the rules and justify weaknesses with the lack of scales or other tools, in campaigns or production needs. Trust in people must exist, but in addition to this, there must be strict control over people, and this control cannot be done outside of the implementation of state rules, on the circulation of goods.
Thirdly, the hostile activity and propaganda against the popular power developed by the defendants, has followed certain goals and is directed to affect them in the same social and economic policies that have seemed to damage the most. Thus, using the results, to some extent not good, of the agricultural cooperative of Gurezi, the enemy element has thrown slogans that distort our reality, they have made comparisons with Western countries, and they have described the agricultural cooperative and the cooperative system as the cause of the situation.
At the same time, there was talk about the change in the situation of our country, especially through the intervention of the Soviet Union in Albania, there was talk against the leadership of the Party, against the unity of the People with the Party. This rampant propaganda to some extent has negatively affected the entire life of the cooperative.
That fraud and theft has influenced the reduction of the value of the working day, has aroused dissatisfaction among the members, has demobilized people to a certain extent, has hindered participation in work, has encouraged work with poor quality, trample and go, and so on. to pass the queue. It is so true that the former agricultural cooperative of Gurez, although it was formed many years ago and in better and more favorable conditions than some other cooperatives, until the end of 1969, it had results of weakness.
In 1970, thanks to the organizational, educational and persuasive measures that were taken, as well as the attack and elimination of this hostile group, increased the trust of the cooperatives towards the common work and increased their interest in the problems that concern the cooperative. This brought as a consequence that in these years, the Gurezi sector, not only to come out of the backwardness, but to be the best sector of this cooperative.
The figures and facts mentioned by the many discussants who took the floor in this trial were meaningful and convincing for the drawn conclusion. The question arises: Would the defendants have been able to achieve the destruction of the Cooperative with their activities? We are very sure that they will not even be able to realize their dream because, here in the village of Gurëz, their lives and works a people who are closely connected with the Party, with the cooperative, who love and protect the property of the cooperative, like the eyes of forehead, who looks at it with optimism, who is proud of success but never agrees with the flaws.
This is where the communists, cadres, government bodies, and others are active, which sooner or later are able to discover, capture and attack any activity that harms the interests of the Party and the state. Even these activities of these defendants, it is precisely the communists, the cadres, and the people of Gurëz themselves who discovered it. Many letters and denunciations came to our bodies from the people that made it possible to discover this activity.
In all this, as the Party orders, we must strengthen our revolutionary vigilance even more, towards the activity of the enemy element, with the aim of discovering it at the right time and as early as possible, because in this way they will harm us. as little or not at all and to eliminate from the road these bad thorns that become an obstacle for us to walk forward.
The fact that some of the defendants have developed their activity for a long time, shows that we should never let our minds sleep and lose vigilance, because the enemy leaves no chance without acting to harm us. Therefore, let’s be vigilant against hostile slogans and let’s counter them with the teachings of our Party and at the same time give a crushing blow to those who, starting from a hostile position, spew bile to poison the conscience of our people.
Especially, pay attention to the work that needs to be done with the elements that have personal dissatisfaction and ambiguity, with the aim of preserving these so as not to fall into the trap of the enemies. Let us never allow the enemy elements to take over our people, on the contrary, it is the Party’s propaganda that should be deeply embedded in people’s minds. This requires the Party in the countryside, the communists and cadres, to live better with the people’s problems, to know the concerns of the people, their needs and demands, and in accordance with these to damage the political, ideological work with the masses.
Fourthly, a series of people were involved in this hostile activity, some of them with hostile backgrounds, previously convicted, or declassified, while the other part are the elements from the poor strata who have benefited from the reforms of the government. popular. There are among them clergymen, former educators, artisans, and simple cooperators.
There are people with 7 years of education, secondary or higher, but there are also those who are illiterate, there are those of past ages, but there are also of young ages. In this framework, it is important to learn the right lessons and determine the causes that make even these people who come from the poor strata, who jump over the barricade and end up as real enemies of the popular power.
The party teaches us that: the path from moral degeneration to political degeneration is very short. These elements, being thieves, believers, gamblers, lazy people and parasites, gradually degenerated into enemies of popular power. The factional influence of religious ideology accelerated this process of their degeneration. From this they should learn that, in addition to the global work for the ideological education of the masses, we must pay more attention to the differentiated work with people of this category, with the aim of re-educating them and not allowing them to remain in those contingents of the enemy.
From the evidence collected during the investigation of the case, as well as from those administered during its trial, it turned out that the charges against the defendants: Shtjefën Kurti, Mark Marku, Agustin Preçi, Zef Nishi, Fran Ndoci, for the crimes foreseen by article 72 and 73/1 of the Penal Code, is proven. Therefore, the defendants have committed the crime of sabotaging the economy through theft and damage, and at the same time they have developed agitation and propaganda against the popular government.
Also, the charges against the defendant Ndue Leti for the crimes provided by articles 73/1 and 80/1 were proven. This defendant, has developed agitation and propaganda against the popular power and at the same time, has appropriated the socialist wealth in cooperation and in a large proportion. Defendants Pjetër and Ndue have simultaneously committed the crime of gambling. Memorie.al
Gurez on 28/11/1971
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