The third part
Memorie.al publishes some archival documents extracted from the Central State Archive (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP), which contains the report of the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Albania, Enver Hoxha, held at the Plenum IV on October 17, 1945, in the framework of the electoral campaign for the elections of December 2, 1945 for deputies in the People’s Assembly. The whole speech of Enver Hoxha in that meeting where he stopped and made a detailed summary from the period of the Anti-Fascist National Liberation War, putting in “balance” the reports of the Communist Party of Albania and the National Liberation Army led by it with the British allies. the United States and the Soviet Union, the war of these allies with Nazi Germany, the relations of official Tirana with the Balkan countries and beyond, such as: Yugoslavia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Hungary, etc., the escape from Albania of high nationalist exponents of Balli and Legality and their shelter by the Anglo-Americans, the armed resistance of the “leaders of the reaction” in Northern Albania, such as: Muharrem Bajraktari, Fiqri Dine, Gjon Marka Gjoni, etc., their arrests and convictions by the courts , Soviet aid to Albania in tons of wheat and admission of the first contingent of Albanian students in schools, universities and military academies of the Soviet Union, etc.
“The pursuits by our forces do not leave any opportunity for Bajraktar leaders such as: Muharrem Bajraktari, Fiqri Dines, Gjon Markut, etc., to organize and arm themselves. It is true that they have escaped our forces and this should concern us strongly, but it is a fact that they are moving with great difficulty. These elements, of course, cause us headaches, why in many Northern provinces, our work has been and continues to be poor. Sometimes there their slogans take place and there are still people still waiting for the events. They will be strongly connected with this government, only an intensive political work on our part and the direct interest of the government in solving their problems in a concrete way. The strength of the reaction does not lie only in the armed gangs; we will see it manifested in other elements and in various forms, who, supported by the external reaction, are preparing the resistance against our democratic power. This reaction aggregation process is not a simple development. “For us, who run the policy of the Front and the government, it will be a big mistake if we do the calculations and if we idealize our internal situation and our power.”
This is what the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Albania, Enver Hoxha, said in his speech at the meeting of the IV Plenum held on October 17, 1945, in the framework of the electoral campaign for the elections. of 2 December ’45. For more about this, we will meet in this article, which Memorie.al publishes for the first time and in full.
Followed by the last number
Speech of Enver Hoxha held at the IV Plenum of the Central Committee of the Albanian Communist Party, on October 17, 1945
If we do not improve the economic sector, our obligations to the people and to the states with which we have trade relations will be a cause for us to become dependent and politically dependent. Let us never forget this; the past has been bitter. With the exception of the Soviets, against whom we must be very correct in every respect, the Anglo-American allies do not help us for our beautiful eyes. Their intentions are known. Our country, with the backward development it had before the war and with all the measures exercised by the Zog regime, still exported something abroad. Of course, export is related to the development of different production sectors: such as agriculture, livestock, industry in this regard, but we with a good organization and the activation of all the capital of the country, can achieve satisfactory results. We have put the big sectors of the state into action, but their development is rudimentary. The main income of our country is provided by the production of mines, which will help us to strengthen other sectors. Oil is our main source and everyone cares. Of course, in this vital sector, we will rely on aid to the Soviet Union, but looking first and foremost at the interest of our country.
The first talks were held in this direction and the Soviets agreed to send us some specialists to study the issue in the country, to see what help they can give us and what machine is needed to put to maximum use the wells of Kuçova and Patosit. The problem of agriculture is also very important and very difficult. Our agriculture is very backward, our farmer is very poor, the methods and tools of work are old. With the change of farmer conditions, as a result of agrarian reform, the nature of work and production must also change. We must produce as much as we can, we must not leave a single inch of land uncultivated, we must encourage and introduce into production other necessary crops, which either from ignorance or from the difficult conditions in which the farmer lived, do not i mbillte. This will be our policy in this area. Definitely here we have to work with the system. The issue of agriculture, agrarian reform and the problems that arise must be looked at in general. Agriculture should be assisted concretely and in all sectors: in the matter of seeds, tools and animals, in the field of livestock and the establishment of small workshops for the processing of livestock products as well as in the matter of forests and the wood industry. For this work it is necessary to create a bank and private capital and especially in the issue of livestock and industrial products derived from it.
Agrarian reform was one of our biggest reforms, which will undoubtedly give a boost to our agriculture. But first we must work on the good and rapid implementation of the reform. In relation to agrarian reform is the issue of population and reclamation. Will we be able to do this, in these moments? It’s hard to do them right, but that does not mean we should not start. According to the statistics presented to us and according to the first results that have resulted from the division of some estates, for now we do not anticipate having much land to populate and the population will be limited until large-scale reclamations begin. For those farming families we will relocate, we must provide them with at least a minimum of working tools. We must take care that the families of martyrs, soldiers and poor farmers are settled in the expropriated lands in the first place. While reclamations for budget and technical reasons cannot start now on a large scale. But it is ascertained that the masses of the people with great will have begun and are opening canals and lines for the drainage of waters and for the irrigation of lands. We need to encourage and help this more. The financial problem and this is a big problem that should concern us.
The costs, everyone should know, are much higher than the usual income. If we add to these the extraordinary taxes, we manage to have a balanced budget, but nevertheless it will be realized with great difficulty. As you know, our budget is based on more than half, on extraordinary taxes. Other income is various taxes. It goes without saying that, with a paralyzed trade, a devastated industry, poor agriculture, impoverishment of the people and the abolition of almost all direct taxes, tax revenues are scarce. This situation naturally hinders the realization of the program of various works. Many counties complain that they are not sent the loans that have been allocated to them in the budget, but they do not think where these loans can come from so easily. Many counties have completely neglected tax collection and are kept only with the budget set by the center. Some counties, without thinking at all about where we are going with the financial problem, even break the law, asking not to collect taxes at all, because supposedly this way they will make a good impression. We all know that it makes a good impression if you do not get anything from the people, but when no one pays, even if it is set, how is it done? How will we cope with this financial year?
In the first place with savings and when we say savings, we should not understand that we have to pay thousands of employees who do not work and put aside the work. Savings are made both by cleaning the parasites, which may have filled the offices, and by activating the people in voluntary work for their own and the general good. He must be made to understand that the conditions are difficult. Then, above all, we should feel sorry for the state All, use it properly, control it properly. In this regard we are far behind and a turn is definitely needed, because otherwise we may be facing a bankruptcy. The goods we bring from abroad, agricultural, to help agriculture and not to pluck it as it used to be. The creation of this bank is being realized, but here we must take care that the loans given to farmers really go to the establishment of agriculture. For this, extensive educational work needs to be done with farmers so that these loans can be used properly. A good policy in this regard will be one of the main factors of economic growth of the country. If we manage to improve the production of wheat and corn, as well as other crops, we will get rid of a large part of the import of bread from abroad, which allows us to import other things that will help to raise of other sectors and the addition of their products.
In addition, improving livestock will allow us to export wool and set up an industry in our country. Leather at this time is required everywhere without distinction. The wood industry in our country has been far behind. We imported a lot of boards from abroad, and we can set up a wood and paper industry to meet at least the needs of the country. In this regard, in addition to the great burden that falls on the state, we can easily activate and sell them are a tool that allows us to meet our needs caused by delays in the collection of taxes, but do not forget that these amounts always remain in the state budget liability. With the introduction of the new banknote, the issue of a new deflation is also in question. Since we are dealing with money, here I want to emphasize that the comrades of the Party who work in power and especially who are located in the distribution offices of goods, both in the center and in the counties, must be rigorous in financial matters and in keeping the statements in order… This is not a small thing, there are millions and I say this because abuses are taking place in various sectors, even in the army, even by someone who calls himself a member of the Party. Such things will be repressed mercilessly, whether done intentionally or unintentionally. The Party member in the first place must have his head in place and a clear conscience.
Let’s look at the problem of reconstruction and what we can do in this sector. We all know how the situation presented itself. The government’s plan was to first and urgently regulate traffic, roads, bridges, transport. In building the bridges we had great success. Why did we have this success? In our opinion, this was achieved because there was more conscientious work and the leaders of that sector stood on their own two feet. Also, a lot of material was found by our people and bought by the government. These were the success factors in this sector. Almost all power plants are in order as they were before, but these are quite outdated. Most worrying now, after the repairs of the bridges, and the more or less good repair of the roads, is the problem of housing the population that has been left homeless. Can we do a lot of things in this regard and grounded things? For now, it’s hard. We are unable to build new houses and in series in various villages that have been burned and destroyed. But we have to try to get these people in the head somewhere. We must therefore do our utmost to assist private or collective initiatives to erect huts or makeshift houses for this winter.
On the other hand, in this sector we have to work on designing the plans of burned villages or cities, so that in favorable cases we can start the works. But, like this, like the issue of electrification of the country, which is very important, they require more favorable conditions than the ones we live in. In the matter of transport, we are very weak. There is a phenomenon in the issue of vehicles. We all know that we are bad and that we can be in trouble. Nobody gives you vehicles, because there is a need everywhere. We all say we should make savings and save them, but no one does anything. Those who have vehicles for state affairs, care very little, those who do not have at all, criticize from all sides, but when a vehicle falls into your hands, they “burst” to destroy it. This is not funny. Those vehicles we inherited were old, but the fact is that we have abused and continue to abuse in this regard. As in any field of activity and especially on the issue of transport, the people of the Party must definitely put order. From those five machines that we have, the bread of the people depends, the transport of salt and gas depends, the industrial enterprises depend, the world affairs, the exploitation of our mines. Given the importance of this great problem we will put our finger on the head. There is no other solution in this regard. The prospects are not bright. This is the reality.
The problem of education must become a problem of the whole Party. What should be the educational policy of the Party and our state? Everyone should be provided with education. Illiteracy must be fought, primary school must be made compulsory for all, we must try to equip the younger generation with a general healthy culture, to orient the largest and healthiest part of the youth in the field of agriculture and industry, to form cadres of sound teachers and add these cadres. To eradicate the mentality that “even without education and culture we can do everything”. We feel a lot now what it means not to have cultured people, to run the affairs, not to have engineers, technicians, agronomists and others. What will happen later if we do not act now and pursue a sound and comprehensive education policy? We will start with the ones we have. We must pay special attention to primary school teachers, because they have the whole young generation in their hands. With a fair policy towards them, we can have a lot of success with them, because these, let us not forget, most are the sons and daughters of the people, poor, closer to us, closer to the people and living with the people. The teacher is everything in the village. This does not exclude that we should have a fair attitude with the professors, however many of them are indifferent or still stay away from our power.
The demands for opening schools are very high and exceed our possibilities. Every village wants to have a school. Neither the budget allows us to do this, but neither are we technically able. However, we have to open a number of schools, trying to prepare new teachers coming out of the pedagogical courses we have to create. These new teachers will in time be perfected and supplement their knowledge. The school curriculum will be a difficult thing to design for this school year. We are studying Soviet high school curricula, but this will take a long time to translate, study, and establish a suitable curriculum for our schools. We are now obliged to walk with the old programs with great care in the development of the lessons of history, pedagogy, psychology and morality, because in these subjects quite easily, teachers or professors with old spirit can mislead the young and direct them not where we want to take them, but in the opposite way. The opening of dormitories, which is necessary, also presents great difficulties for economic conditions and especially for lack of material base. We have decided to open four dormitories where mainly children of peasants, workers, sons of martyrs and fighters, poor children of the people should go.
We are also trying to send a number of students to study abroad at universities. This is where the financial issue and financial relations with other countries hinder us. We have asked friendly countries to accept students with scholarships. The problem of the army is of course important and we need to discuss it. In such international situations, where everything is unstable, we must keep the army afloat and have it strong. Our operational army reaches as far as You can see this army is quite large for our country and it is impossible for us to maintain for such a long time such a large effective in number. Keeping this effective for a long time can not only harm us economically, but can also hinder the strengthening and modernization of the army, because we feel a great lack of officers to educate these measures. Therefore, we are faced with the issue of reorganizing the army in terms of effective and cadres and in this regard, the preparation of mobilization bases and that of peace staff. Now we have just started to settle the issue of mobilization, without which we can in no way proceed to the new demobilization and mobilization.
Until we have organized the issue of mobilization and prepared the peacekeeping staff and the reserve personnel with the necessary armament, we think that the divisions we have should be summarized in fewer divisions. Of those who remain, we should demobilize a part, including it in the reserve cadres, and give another part to the Defense, in order to complete its effective. Defense and police soldiers will be salaried. The situation will later teach us whether we should reduce the army or not. The background of the army is quite weak and our bodies, although they face many obstacles, still have not gained the experience of organization and responsibility. This causes us to face very difficult situations, such as the barracks of the army and its clothing. Here we are bad, not to say too bad. Our soldiers are still sleeping outside or we are forced to take inappropriate measures for today. The issue of army clothing is a problem that needs to be solved on the spot and the soldier always provided with clothes and shoes. Let us not forget that enthusiasm can continue for life if we did not know how to nurture it and keep it up. Therefore, in this regard, the comrades of the Party must put all their efforts and care, because a lot depends on this.
We have a lot of work to do in raising new staff and educating them. Here we are far behind. Without trained cadres of officers, we cannot have a regular and modern army. Of the old partisans, some have been promoted, some have gone to power, some will be demobilized, why they cannot be kept under arms for life. They will pass into the reserve army. And so, our army will be renewed with new birthdays with which we must do a new educational work, instill in their souls the love for the army, educate them properly. This will be done when we manage to have the cadres of good officers and learned that otherwise our army will take the form of Zog’s army, where ignorance reigned. It is gratifying to note that our post-war officers, whom we sent for studies in the Soviet Union, have a great thirst for learning and go well in lessons. So, we are dealing with a generation of officers who open a very good perspective to the army. In this regard, we must work in our country by improving the schools we have, various courses and all education in the army. This education should not be superficial, but serious.
In this external and internal situation, with this power and with this work program, the Party is put before a great proof which is that of the elections for the Constitutional Assembly, for the determination of the form of the regime and the Basic Statute of the State. Elections are not a simple operation, here the strength of the Party will be recognized, its leading force, here the ability of every member of the Party will be recognized. In the electoral campaign the values of the Party will be sifted and this great test will serve for the distribution of cards l. Working for elections does not have to mean just holding a few conferences. Success in the elections will be ensured by the implementation of the work program, by the construction of roads and houses, by the good distribution of corn, wheat, salt, kerosene, will be ensured by the proper implementation of the electoral law, by the strengthening of power, with the participation of all the people in the elections. The people must see concretely that the people who liberated the homeland from occupiers and traitors are able to govern, are able to rebuild the country and improve the economic and social life of the country. From the election campaign, the comrades have to come out with a great experience, it is about the membership cards in the Party, which began to be distributed in 1946 after a general revision, which took place in the Party. this should be a school for them and arm them to solve other big problems we will face ahead. /Memorie.al