Memorie.al publishes some archival documents with the logo “Top secret”, issued by the Central State Archive in Tirana (Fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP) which belong to 1961 and are part of a voluminous file with letters, reports, information, reports, instructions, petitions, etc., where it is about the beginning of contradictions and the breakdown of official Tirana’s relations with the Soviet Union, which at that time was very much felt by Albanian students who were studying in schools and universities of the Soviet Union, who, by order received from Tirana, discontinued their studies and waited for instructions to return to Albania. The full dossier of Albanian students in the former Soviet Union, where most of them, mainly those attending military academies, had major problems and encountered numerous vicissitudes with the official Russian authorities, being put to the extent of the arrest and the intervention of the Albanian military attaché in Moscow, Major General Halim Ramohito, to unblock the situation and return the Albanian military students to their homeland.
Fund: CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE ALBANIAN LABOR PARTY
Content: REPORTS OF RELATIONS OF FORMER attache MILITARY Albanians in the Soviet Union HALIM RAMOHITO, groups responsible THE SECRETARIES OF ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON THE apprentices and party officers studying at school MILITARY USSR where the form: ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ORDER OF RP GOVERNMENT SH, FOR THE RETURN TO THE COUNTRY OF MARINE STUDENTS, ETC. OBSTACLES AND PRICING IN THEIR CONDITIONS ARREST OF BODIES Soviets, STAY GOOD POLITICAL trainees and officers Albanians and the conversations they have had with citizens, trainees officers Soviets, the situation in the Soviet Union Unhappiness POLICY Khrushchev, collecting Bucharest OF MOSCOW, THE ATTITUDE TOWARDS YUGOSLAV REVISIONISM, THE SOLIDARITY OF THE PEOPLE, THE STUDENTS, AND SOME SOVIET OFFICERS, WITH THE RIGHT ATTITUDE OF THE ALP.
Report-information of the Albanian military attaché in Moscow, Major General, Halim Ramohito, sent to the Central Committee of the P.P.SH in Tirana
CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF P.P.SH TIRANA
Subject: Report on the implementation of the decision of the government of R.P.SH for the repatriation of naval trainees.
On May 13 (Saturday afternoon), Comrade Nesti Nase informed me about the decision of the RPSH government to withdraw naval trainees from the military schools of the Soviet Union. According to the decision, a total of 247 trainees who were continuing their education in 6 military schools had to return. Of these 5 schools based in Leningrad and 1 in Baku. The Minister of National Defense, Colonel-General, Beqir Balluku, gave instructions for me to inform in advance about this decision of our government, the Joint Command. To ask for their help to move, to be done within 7-10 days. In case this assistance would not be provided by the Joint Command, I would take measures myself for the return of the trainees to Albania.
On Tuesday, May 16, I met with Army General Antonov (I could not meet with him on May 15). I communicated the government decision to him. I said the reasons, you know yourself. The unilateral decision of the Soviet government to liquidate the base ruined the entire plan for the preparation of our naval cadre, here in the USSR. Continuing further lessons from our trainees, I told Antonov, remains aimless is a waste of time and requires expense. General Antonov replied that the decision of your government to withdraw the trainees seems to me to be hasty. The Commission will now go to Albania and discuss this issue. I asked him if there would be any change in the decision taken by the Soviet government regarding the withdrawal of Soviet crews from the Vlora naval base on May 20 ?! He replied that this issue is not changed and that it was decided by the Warsaw Pact Political Consultative Council. In the end General Antonov told me that with all that, this issue belongs to you and decide how you want. I informed him that I was leaving for Leningrad tonight. I also asked the General to inform the school commanders about this measure. On Tuesday afternoon, Colonel-General Gusevi called me to his office. He is Antonov’s deputy. In the conversation between him and him, he repeated Antonov’s words to me, and then told me to leave this issue from June or July, because the trainees then finish the exams, etc. I reiterated that this is a final decision and has to do with the Soviet government’s unilateral decision on the base.
I told him to talk, about the trainee departure schedule after the decision has been made and will not be changed. Gusev told me that the Soviet government would consider the matter and that he should not leave for Leningrad. There, there is nothing you can do, he said after school commands take orders from us. I replied that I will leave tonight for Leningrad and that I will inform the trainees about their departure to Albania. In case you do not help us, I will take the measures myself. I told him that there is no need to review this decision of the Albanian government. I do not discuss this with you I told you, but please help me to launch the trainees. So we parted with Gusev, he with his thoughts, I with mine. Antonov and Gusev’s position on the implementation of our government’s decision on Tuesday was different. And as it turns out later, the decision of the Soviet government not to allow our trainees to return to Albania, in order to pressure and process them, was taken after my meeting with Antonov. I immediately informed General Beqir about my meeting with Antonov and Gusev. I received an order from him to implement the decision of the Albanian government for the return of the trainees. And in case the Joint Command does not help us, it will start at the expense of the Albanian state.
On the night of May 16, I left for Leningrad and arrived there on the morning of May 17th. In Leningrad, I was not received by any of the School Commanders. In the past, I have been to Leningrad and other cities of the Soviet Union several times, and there have been no occasions when I have not been received. On May 17, I met with the commands of the schools which, I informed them about the decision to return the trainees, about the reasons that forced us to make this decision, I thanked them for the help they gave us, etc. The School Commands replied that they had not received an order from the Joint Command to withdraw the trainees. I told them to look for you on the phone after I notified them. Immediately after meeting with the school commanders, I gathered the trainees. In the first conversations I had with them, I was informed that some Soviet trainees and officers had spread various words to our trainees, as if large arrests were being made in Albania, that the ALP delegation at the Moscow Conference had allegedly taken a stand of roaches, that the Albanian leadership is against the Warsaw Pact, etc. I spoke openly to the trainees about all the issues. I rejected the slanders made against our party. I was finally informed of our government’s decision to return to Albania. The trainees listened to my speech with great attention.
The meetings turned into fiery manifestations for the Party and Comrade Enver. On the morning of May 18, I held a meeting in Leningrad with those officers who were not expected to leave the academies where they were studying, as well as with students who were party members. The meeting was to take place in one of the halls of Leningrad University. When we gathered in front of the university building, we were informed that the hall would not be given to us. They put different pretexts for this as if the hall was busy, etc. Our fellow students took us to their dormitory. There we started the meeting. After 10 minutes, over 15 people (university party committee, Leningrad Security staff, etc.) drove us out of the meeting room insistently and demonstratively. The meeting with our military and students, I was forced to hold in a Leningrad park. The news of the return of our trainees to Albania spread throughout Leningrad from Soviet trainees and officers, from trainees and officers of the People’s Democracies studying with our students in military academies and schools, as well as from our trainees and their acquaintances. in Leningrad. On the afternoon of May 18, the Second Secretary of the Leningrad Party Committee asks me to meet with him. In the meeting I had with him in Smolny, he said to me: What are these partisan actions that you are doing here in Leningrad ?! Why didn’t you ask for permission and hall in the Party Committee for the meetings you do ?! Why speak against the leadership of the Soviet Union ?!
Here I dismissed it all. I told him that I had come here several times to Leningrad, and that I had never had the problem of the hall, and even worse of the measures you are taking, that I should not meet with my people. I mentioned the slander that spreads to our trainees about our party line and its leadership. I mentioned that they had sent a letter to the party organization with slander in the direction of our party. This is what the Albanian citizens who are in Leningrad have told me. I emphasized that in your opinion you have the right to spread slander, while I have no right to explain to our people what is not true. I asked him to help me attract the trainees. After talks with him, he finally told me that: Comrade Enver Hoxha was received like no other here in Leningrad, and now he speaks differently about the Soviet Union. I dismissed him saying that he had been lied to. Since the help from the Commander of the Schools for the departure of the trainees did not give me, I took measures for the departure of the trainees myself.
I planned to send the trainees to Moscow by train, on May 19 at 6 pm On Friday morning I planned to check the trainees’ readiness for departure. I started from the Higher School of Naval Engineering (VITU). Upon appearing at school, not only did the School Command not receive me but the armed guards did not allow me to make contact with the trainees. On Friday morning, all naval cadets were isolated on school premises by armed guards. Arrangements were made for no one to meet with them. Also, on Friday morning, I was under open control by 10 civilians of the Security organs. The train station in Moscow and the airport were placed under the strict control of Security troops and agents. My name and my characteristics, as our trainees later told me, had all the garrison patrols.
On Friday, I met again with the Second Secretary of the Leningrad Party Committee, with the member of the Leningrad District Military Council, as well as with the commander of the Baltic Navy Flora. Everyone asked me to cancel the order for the departure of the trainees. In the meeting we had with the Commander of the Baltic Navy, I described the background of the issue. In my presence, he telephoned Admiral Gorshkov in Moscow, and then I, through Gorshkov, had a conversation with the Chief of Staff of the Soviet Army, Marshal Zakharov. Marshall Zaharov communicated to me on the phone the following issues:
- The Soviet government has not yet made a decision on the return of your trainees to Albania.
- Return to Moscow urgently to discuss these issues. I gave Marshall this answer:
- The Albanian government, for reasons you know well, has decided to withdraw naval trainees and I have timely notified General Antonov and Gusev to assist in their transport.
- I ordered the trainees to arrive at the train station in Moscow today at 6 pm to leave. They are now held in solitary confinement in schools. In case any accident happens to them, I do not respond.
- I cannot come to Moscow without sending the trainees. The decision of the Albanian government is a law for me and I will implement it. Shortly after my conversation with Zaharov, I was completely arrested. They did not touch me but accompanied me everywhere. From the hotel I got my friend Nesti Nase on the phone with whom I kept in constant contact, during my stay in Leningrad. Nesti informed me to leave for Moscow. He had been summoned to the Foreign Ministry at this time and had been informed of my departure from the Soviet Union. On Friday at 5 pm, I leave for the airport in order to leave for Moscow. I was always accompanied by Security agents, even on the way to the airport. At the airport, as soon as I went to the plane ticket office, I was informed that the Security Department had informed me not to be given a plane ticket to leave for Moscow. I returned to Leningrad and on Friday night left by train for Moscow, following a request I made to the commander of the Baltic Fleet. I arrived in Moscow on Saturday morning. I immediately presented the letter to the Joint Command to the Commander of the Joint Forces. (The text of the letter came to me prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Since the Chinese military attaché in Moscow is the head of the military attachés of the countries of the popular democracies, I informed him by phone about my departure, briefly telling him the reason. Yes on the phone he wished me goodbye and expressed regret that we were not meeting.
After a few hours the Chinese military attaché invites me to lunch with the whole woman. I was received and escorted in front of the embassy by 10 other people besides the attaché. Over lunch I told him the story of the case. He told me that this event does not surprise us. This is a continuation of the unjust attitude that they hold on many issues. My wife and I were given presents. The military attaché himself gave me a decoration that in the Chinese army is given to the distinguished. When he was putting the decoration on my jacket, he said that these medals are taken away from you by the Soviets, but I am giving them to you on behalf of the leadership of the Chinese army. Employees of our embassy as well as other servicemen studying in Moscow academies (about 100 people) escorted me from the embassy to the airport very warmly. The situation created by the removal of our trainees from Leningrad and Baku, various military and the people consider a political scandal. In Leningrad various citizens ironically spoke that measures are being taken for the Albanians as our leadership is afraid that they (Albanians) will take Leningrad peacefully. Various officers and with the ranks of Rear Admiral in their offices, have asked our officers and trainees what is going on as they know nothing. In the cities, and at the train stations with all the strong measures for the isolation of the trainees, those with the photograph of Comrade Enver have cheered for the friendship with the Soviet Union, for our party, and for Comrade Enver.
At the train stations they were escorted by the Chinese military that helped our trainees and during the days of isolation in the schools to maintain contact with the rest of the city. There have been cases when our trainees when we were leaving were told that we have an order from the 10th Directorate that whoever wants to let them stay to continue the lessons here. The Party Committees, the Military Commands, as well as the Security Organs of Leningrad and Baku have taken direct measures to uncover this scandal that they made and which they describe as a “rebellion of the Albanians”. After my departure, as the trainees say, meetings have started in military units, schools, and work centers, regarding the departure of our trainees. The attitude of naval officers and cadets regarding the defense of the Party line has been heroic. Although the trainees skipped classes, some would even defend engineering degrees, and none expressed the slightest concern. Everyone said that even if cartwrights are assigned to us in Albania, we will go where the Party tells us. Two trainees and an officer were married to Soviet girls. I talked to them on my own and communicated that they would return to Albania without women as marriages abroad were not allowed. (The order to allow married servicemen to take wives was notified to me late) they immediately appeared ready telling me, Party above all. In Albania, out of 247 naval trainees envisaged by the decision to return, 246 were performed after one trainee remained seriously ill at the Leningrad Military Hospital.
Tirana on 24.5.1961
It was printed in two copies
In fact. Cap. I. I. K. Kole
30.5.1961 Nr. 377 r / sh
Copy 1 of the Central Committee of P.P.SH
Copy 2 Ministry of Foreign Affairs
RELATIONS OF THE SUBMARINE GROUP
On May 17, 1961, General Ramohito informed us of the decision of the Central Committee of the P.P.SH and the Government on our departure from the USSR and the termination of studies. The decision of the Central Committee of the ALP, the trainees educated by our Labor Party, the call made by the Party was received with great applause and with great enthusiasm, and from the mouth of the trainees came the word that we are ready where the Party leads us and we are ready to defend the homeland. General Ramohito, in his discussion made a brief balance from the time of the Bucharest Meeting, until today where he convincingly showed the heroic attitude of the ALP, which walks the path of Marxism-Leninism and on some issues between the USSR and the RPSH. He said that the attitude of the Soviet government headed by Khrushchev is not good towards our country, a non-Marxist attitude, e.g. in economic relations on the non-acceptance of aid for not building the third five-year plan, on not giving wheat, etc. He also spoke about ideo-political issues, etc.
General Ramohito in his last speech gave his instructions:
- The trainees should be explained the good work, from the time of the Bucharest Meeting on the decisions of the K.Q of P.P.SH as e.g. the issue of the construction of the Palace of Culture, and as reasons for our departure, we should have had full conviction on the removal of the Soviet base from the Adriatic Sea d.m.th from our coast.
- Since we are leaving, in order to leave a good impression, we must maintain and strengthen the internal order of the school as much as possible.
- To preserve the friendship of the USSR with the R.P.SH, and this friendship will be strengthened and moreover it will never die. Our departure was announced by all Soviet trainees and professors. They were very sorry because they did not get Albanian trainees out of their hands to steer the submarines. Our monolithic trainees, led by General Ramohito, explained this situation to Soviet trainees and professors. The first day was really wonderful because all the Soviet trainees understood us correctly. But at this time, the Secretary of the School Party, Captain I Lebediev, calls the Secretary of the Party of the submarine group, and tells Comrade Astrit Mezini, that you should shut up your trainees, about this propaganda they are opening among Soviet trainees. The position of the Secretary of the Basic Organization of the Party, Astrit Mezini, was that we, the Soviet cadets, would explain our escape to the right and in the full Marxist sense. But later the School Command took the necessary measures:
- Cut off telephone connections to the city.
- They did not allow meetings with Albanian comrades, i.e. officers, etc.
- To prevent our trainees from leaving, they took measures to increase the number of guards on the school grounds. And the group of guards was on combat readiness for anything that could happen. After these measures, they started talking and with their propaganda, for example, the Secretary of the School Party, said that the government of the Republic of Albania has not signed the declaration of the Warsaw Pact in Moscow, i.e. that she is against armaments, and does not want to be part of this treaty. He also stressed that the position of Comrade Enver Hoxha at the Moscow Summit was not a Marxist position, etc. /Memorie.al
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