Memorie.al publishes the unknown story of the events of August 1949, otherwise known as the “Provocations of August”, where numerous forces of the Greek government army of Prime Minister Caldaris, supported by artillery and aviation, undertook armed attacks on the borders southeast of the People’s Republic of Albania in the districts of Kolonjë and Korçë, entering several times hundreds of meters deep in our land. How did official Tirana follow the events of the “August Provocations” through its press (“Zeri i Popullit” and “Bashkimi” newspapers) and the Albanian Telegraphic Agency, which published the news from the war front, the operational communiqués of the Ministry of Forces t ‘ Armed Forces of the People’s Republic of Albania, news from the districts of Korça, Kolonjë, Skrapar, Tepelena, etc. The burial ceremonies of the Albanian soldiers who were killed on the war front took place, as well as the protest notes that the Albanian government, through the then Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Manush Myftiu, sent to the Secretary General of the United Nations, Excellency Trigve Lie Lake in New York. All the details of those events that caused over 100 Albanian soldiers and officers to be killed, which became the subject of numerous debates and meetings up to the United Nations, where Tirana and Athens blamed each other.
72 years ago, on August 2, 1949, several units of the Greek government army, supported by artillery and combat aviation, attacked with fire of their weapons in some points of the southeastern borders of the People’s Republic of Albania in the districts of Korça and Cologne. As a result of those attacks undertaken by them, the government forces of the Greek army, which official Tirana labeled as: monarcho-fascist, were able to enter several times hundreds of meters deep into Albanian soil, such as the village of Bozhigrad, Vidohova sector, etc. ., where they encountered resistance from the Albanian border guards and the forces of the People’s Defense Division that had long been installed in the Korça district.
That cross-border armed conflict, which lasted for more than a month and where there were hundreds killed and wounded (both on the Albanian and Greek sides), by the Albanian historiography and propaganda of the communist regime before the ’90s is known as: “Provocations of August 1949”, and as such that event has remained in the historical memory of Albanians for several generations. But was it really so? So were the events of August 1949 really provocations of the Greeks and official Athens? The truth about this enigma became public only after the ’90s, when with the opening of secret archives and numerous official documents of the Albanian state, as well as from the testimonies of many famous people and personalities, main actors or peripherals of those events which took place 72 years ago, it became possible to shed light and fully illuminate the “August Provocations”.
Among other things, the retired colonel, Skënder Malindi, former Chief of Operations at the Ministry of Defense at the time he led the field fighting, and the retired colonel, Myftar Tare, former Deputy Minister of Minister of Internal Affairs and director of Foreign Intelligence in the State Security in the years 1945-’48, who personally led the secret operation “Action 10”. That operation, which lasted for almost five years in 1945-49 (a time that lasted and the civil war in Greece between the forces of the nationalist and communist government army led by the Greek Communist Party, led by Niko Zahariadhis and the military commander of those partisan forces, General Marko Vafjadhis), had to do with the support, assistance, supply, financing, shelter and everything else that the communist regime of Enver Hoxha gave to the Greek communist forces.
Not only that, but during all those years that the civil war in Greece continued, the main leaders of the Communist Party of Greece, took refuge in luxury villas in Tirana, being received in meetings by the highest leaders of official Tirana. Likewise, Mount Gramoz and other areas inside the state border in the area of Korça and Kolonjë, had been turned into bases of the Greek partisan army of General Marko Vafjadhis, and several military hospitals were set up there where Greek partisans were treated and treated. As a result of all this, which official Athens at the time considered official interference in its internal affairs, in August 1949, it attacked the Greek partisan forces to their last positions, on Mount Gramoz, pursued them even within Albanian territory, where Greek partisans retreated to escape the destructive attacks of Greek government forces.
As a result of those events and fierce fighting on Mount Gramoz, the communist government of Tirana opened its borders, sheltering Greek partisans on its territory. They were then housed in several camps set up specifically in some districts of the country, near Tirana, and later allowed to flee to other communist countries in Eastern Europe, mainly the Soviet Union, which was also the main actor who had supported and financed the Greek communists in their efforts to come to power by force of arms.
While these events have already become known for a long time, Memorie.al in this article is publishing the echo that those events had in Albania at that time, or more precisely how those events were followed by official Tirana and its press, publishing some from the articles and articles of the newspaper “Bashkimi” of the period August-September 1949, as well as the news of the Albanian Telegraphic Agency of that time.
News of the Albanian Telegraphic Agency and the newspapers “Bashkimi” and “Zeri i Popullit”, for the events of “Provocations of August 1949”
Operational Communication of the Ministry of the Armed Forces of the People’s Republic of Albania.
Date 3 August 1949
Monarcho-Fascist forces consisting of 3 battalions reinforced with Artillery and supported by 15 planes “SPITFIRE”, on 2.5.1949 at 5.00 attacked by surprise and treacherously our land in the sector of Bozhigrad pyramid 54-55 with a front of 700 -800 meters wide. After seven hours of fierce fighting with the border guards of the People’s Defense Division, they were able to enter the depths of our land up to 300-400 meters, taking the quota of 1309 and beating the village of Vidohova with artillery. At 18.30 our forces attack the Monarcho-fascists who had entered our land, pursued them to the border and decided the situation.
From the fighting were killed bravely: Captain Memo Nexhipi from Dukaj of Tepelena, Aspirant Ferit Bregasi from Vëndresha of Corovoda, soldier Tefik Ferati from Marjani i Oparit, soldier Shyqëri Avdyli from Skrapar, soldier Ibrahim Fetahu from Lushnja and soldier Hasan Ramadad. 6 soldiers were also wounded. The monarcho-fascists in these battles have had over 100 people killed and wounded as well as about 50 animals. (ATSH).
The people of Korça venerate the bodies of the six martyrs who fell from the aggressive act of the Greek monarcho-fascists
Korça, 4 August 1949 (ATSH).
The people of Korça received with deep sorrow the bodies of the 6 brave martyrs who gave their lives bravely defending the borders of our land from the aggression of three battalions of the Greek monarcho-fascist army that treacherously attacked our land on August 2 with the sector of Bozhigrad. While the bodies of Captain Memo Nexhip from Dukaj of Tepelena and aspirant Ferit Bregasi from Vendorhaa of Corovoda were transported to their places of birth, the bodies of four soldiers; Tefik Ferhati, Hasan Ramazani, Shyqëri Avdija and Ibrahin Fetahu were placed in the morning in the palace hall of the Executive Committee. The people of the city of Korça, the workers, clerks, students and soldiers paid homage and bowed with deep veneration before the corpses of these soldiers who for the protection of the borders and the sovereignty of our Homeland, for the protection of the victories of the people so far, fought heroically against the monarcho-fascist aggressors until they gave their lives.
The people of the city of Korça, like the entire Albanian people, welcomed with deep indignation this aggressive act of the Greek monarcho-fascists, which adds to the series of provocations and blackmails made recently and previously by bandits and monarcho-criminals fascists against our country. The unfinished line of the people continued for many hours in a row, saying goodbye to these four heroes who with their sacrifice showed the high patriotic spirit that inspires our entire army. The people of the city of Korça, like all our people, promise them that they will faithfully follow the message of the party and the Commander and theirs that: “For the defense of the homeland and the victories of the war N-Çl. not to spare his life”.
More than 7,000 people from the neighborhood people, the workers of the work centers, gathered in front of the palace of the Executive Committee to attend the funeral ceremony of these four fighters defending the independence of the homeland, freedom, the people, the defenders of peace and democracy. Coffins were placed in the middle of the square and on the front were lined up over 40 wreaths of organizations, neighborhoods, factories, cultural institutions, etc. Members of the Party Committee Bureau, garrison officers, and their comrades who were at war with them, erected coffins, and the procession headed to the martyrs’ cemetery. At the head of the procession stood the wreaths, then the families of the martyrs, the comrades of the four soldiers, and the people lined up on both sides. At the burial place, an officer of our People’s Army, who took part in the treacherous attack of the monarcho-fascist bandits, spoke about the heroism and abnegation with which these four soldiers defended their Homeland.
He said that our People’s Army, educated by the Party and Comrade Enver, has set them the task of not sparing even their lives when it comes to defending the country, the people and peace in the world. The sayings of the soldier Tefik Ferati from Marjani i Oparit at the time when he died from the severe wounds he received from the hands of the monarcho-fascist aggressors will be an example for us: “My friends, do not let our land be trampled by aggressors, do not let that the victories of the people be affected, keep up the message of the Party and the Supreme Commander, that for the defense of our Homeland not even life should be spared”. After the officer’s speech, the bodies of the soldiers were buried accompanied by rifle shots.
At this time a great wave of protest and deep indignation has pervaded the entire Albanian people for this aggressive act of the Greek monarcho-fascists that affects our territorial integrity and the principles of international law and are a visible threat to peace and security. international. The slogans “Our borders are not touched, our borders are sacred”, etc., were numerous by the people. The aggressive and criminal act of August 2 by the Greek monarcho-fascists clearly proves the hostile and belligerent policy of the monarcho-fascist government of Athens.
Government of R. P. of Albania protests in front of the UNO General Secretariat for the aggressive act of 2 August
Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs Comrade Manush Myftiu sent today to the Secretary General of the UNO this telegram of protest regarding the aggressive act of the Greek monarcho-fascists on 2 August.
EXCELLENT TRIGVE LIE LAKE – SUCCESS NEW YORK.
On behalf of the Government of the People’s Republic of Albania I have the honor to inform you of the following: On August 2, forces of the Army of the Government of Athens consisting of three battalions reshaped with artillery and supported by 15 aircraft ” Spitfhire ”, suddenly attacked in the Bozhigrad sector, the pyramid 54-55, entering 300-400 meters in the depth of our land. After reaching the quota of 1309, they hit the village of Vidohova with artillery. After a fierce effort that lasted 7 hours, our border forces pushed and restored the situation.
In this attempt, 2 Albanian officers and 4 soldiers were killed. The Government of the People’s Republic of Albania protests with the utmost severity against this new aggression prepared and carried out with goals set by the Government of Athens and which constitutes a flagrant violation of the territorial integrity and National sovereignty of the People’s Republic of Albania. The Government of the People’s Republic of Albania draws the attention of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to this large-scale aggressive and criminal act committed by the Government of Athens and which is the result of the whole hostile and war-loving policy that it pursues persistently against the People’s Republic of Albania.
The Government of the People’s Republic of Albania draws the attention of the Secretary General to the heavy responsibility that falls on the Government of Athens for this brutal violation of the national sovereignty of the People’s Republic of Albania and that in a flagrant manner violates the principles of international law and the Charter of United Nations endangering the protection of international peace and security.
Accept, Secretary-General, the assurances of my highest consideration.
Tirana on 5-8-1949
Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs
The Presidium of the People’s Assembly of R.P. of Albania, decorates the officers and soldiers who were martyred by the aggressive act of the Greek monarcho-fascists
Tirana 5 August 1949 (ATSH).
In support of art. 54 no. 7 of the Statute of the Republic of Albania and of article 4. Nr. 12 of law No. 303 dt. 26.11.1945 on the Presidium of the People’s Assembly on the proposal of the Prime Minister; The Presidency of the Presidium of the People’s Assembly decorates:
With the Order of Bravery the martyrs:
- Captain and II Memo Nexhip Bejko
- Aspirant Ferik Naim Bregasi
With this motivation: “During the service for the protection of the borders of the homeland from the violations and provocations of the Greek monarcho-fascists, he was distinguished for bravery, resistance and self-sacrifice until he was killed, which became an example of resistance for other soldiers.”
The martyrs were also decorated with the medal of bravery: Tefik Ferati, Shyqëri Avdija, Ibrahim Fetahu, Hasan Ramadani: “During the service for the protection of the borders of the homeland from the violations of the Greek monarcho-fascists, he was distinguished for bravery, loyalty and selflessness”.
Presidency of the Presidium of the People’s Assembly of the People’s Republic of Albania.
Chairman Dr. Omer Nishani d.v. Secretary (Sami Baholli) d.v.
Operational Communication of the Ministry of the Armed Forces of the People’s Republic of Albania.
Dated August 6, 1949.
During the day 4.VIII-1949, the Greek monarcho-fascists continued their vile provocations against our country on the southern border. In the Bozhigrad sector and in the direction of Leskovik, near the pyramids no. 11-12-13 e 14. Supported by artillery and aviation, with superior forces attacked the quota 1425 and the quota 1309. Against the attacks of our forces broke the monarcho-fascists by pushing them out of the border. In the efforts of our border guards with the aggressive monarcho-fascist bandits and criminals, in pyramid no. 1425 during the present day the enemy used artillery and aviation. Our border guards shot down a plane taking part in the attack.
During the 4th and 5th of August 1949, more than 1500 artillery shells fell on our land. A portion of these shells dropped on the Mengulat have burned 5 houses. In Bozhigrad on 5.VIII.1949 fell five enemy artillery shells which did not cause damage.
At 7.55 on 4.VIII.1949, a plane of monarcho-fascist bandits flew over our land over the villages of Hoxhaj and Markat. The plane shot down by our forces crashed in the Finiq field near Saranda. The pilot was caught alive.
At 14.00 dated 5.VIII-1949 near the pyramid no. 15 surrendered 5 monarcho-fascist soldiers.
Two Monarcho-Fascist officers were captured in the Leskovik sector on 3.VIII-1949; Lieutenant Skuras Dhërios and Lieutenant Trulinos Manolis, both members of the 627th Battalion of the 74th Fanteris Battalion. The morale of the Monarcho-fascists is very low.
Busy captives show that many monarcho-fascist soldiers threw down their weapons and hid in the woods.
The funeral ceremony of the martyr Memo Nexhipi took place in Tepelena
Yesterday morning in the city of Tepelena was buried the body of the martyr Captain Memo Nexhipi, who was martyred by the bullet of the monarcho-fascist provocateurs on August 2. Over 1500 people from the people of the town and nearby villages participated. Comrade Njazi Islami spoke on this occasion, who on behalf of the Central Committee of the ALP gave the last greeting to the martyr. After the greeting from the people two telegrams were sent; one to the Central Committee of the ALP, the other to General-Colonel Enver Hoxha.
In these telegrams the people express their endless hatred for the provocations carried out by the Greek monarcho-fascists and the vile interventions of the Anglo-American imperialists against our country and our people. At the time of the funeral of the martyr Memo Nexhipi, his father, among other things, said: “Long live the Party and the friends of Memo”. After the funeral, the participants erupted in demonstrations chanting slogans: “Long live our People’s Army”. “Down with the Greek monarcho-fascists and the vile interventions of the Anglo-Americans”, as well as other hateful slogans for the enemies.
The Government of the Republic of Albania protests again in front of the UN Secretary General for the aggressive acts of the Greek monarcho-fascists
Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs, Comrade Manush Myftiu sent today to the Secretary General of the UNO this telegram protesting against the aggressive acts of the Greek monarcho-fascists on 2-4 and 5 August.
THE EXCELLENCE OF HIS TRYGVE LIE, LAKES SUCERSS NEW YORK
On behalf of the Government of R.P. of Albania I have the honor to inform you of the following:
The armed forces of the Government of Athens continued to attack on 3-4 and 5 August on the southern borders of the R.P. of Albania supported by artillery and aviation. On 4 August the attack took place in the Bozhigrad sector and in the direction of Leskovik near the pyramids 11-12-13 and 14.
In the Bozhigrad sector, the army of the Government of Athens attacked the 1425 quota and the 1309 quota. During the fighting, a plane taking part in the attack was shot down and the aggressors were thrown out of the border by the Albanian forces of the border units. 12 Greek soldiers were killed on Albanian soil.
On August 4, the government of the Government of Athens fired more than 1,500 artillery shells on Albanian soil. Some of them fell in the village of Mangulas, where 5 houses were burned and 5 shells fell in the village of Bozhigrad.
On August 4, at 7.55 am, a Greek plane flying to the Albanian villages of Hoxhaj and Markat was shot down by Albanian forces in the Finiq plain near Saranda. The pilot was caught alive.
On 3 August, two Greek officers were captured by the Albanian border forces in the Leskovik sector: Lieutenant Skueras Dhimitrios and Lieutenant Trulinos Manolis, both members of the 627th Battalion of the 74th Fanterija Brigade, and on 5 August, near the 18th pyramid, surrendered. 5 Greek soldiers.
The Government of the Republic of Albania considers this repeated large-scale attack by the Army of the Government of Athens against the People’s Republic of Albania, an open violation of the principles of international law and the Charter of the United Nations and a crime that seriously threatens peace. Therefore, once again, the Government of the People’s Republic of Albania, draws the attention of the Secretary General of the UNO to the serious and direct responsibility that falls to the Government of Athens for these aggressive acts and the ensuing consequences.
The Government of the People’s Republic of Albania protests again vigorously against these brutal and persistent violations of the sovereignty of Albania that are being carried out systematically prepared by the Government of Athens and aimed at disrupting international peace and security.
Please accept, Sir, the assurances of my highest consideration. Memorie.al
Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs