The fourth part
Memorie.al publishes some archival documents with the logo ‘Top secret’ issued by the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP) where are the minutes of the meetings of the senior party and state delegation of the Republic People’s Party of Albania, headed by the Minister of National Defense, Beqir Balluku, with the high delegation of the People’s Republic of China, headed by the chairman of the military commission at the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Ye Chen Ji, where discussed military issues, as well as the delegation led by the Minister of Trade, Kiço Ngjela, with the Chinese delegation led by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People’s Republic of China, Chu En Lai, where economic problems were discussed, as Albania there was an urgent need for cereals, but the Chinese government could not help them, as as a result of the drought, they could not carry out their plans and were buying nin wheat that the French had imported from the Americans! Unknown documents published for the first time with the full minutes of the two meetings held in Beijing on November 7, 1972, where the Albanian military delegation led by the Minister of National Defense, Beqir Balluku (where they took all directors of directorates and chiefs of different types of weapons of the Albanian army), it was requested that the Chinese government assist the Albanian army, with weapons of all types, starting from: light infantry weapons (rifles), artillery anti-aircraft, land and coastal, tanks, armored vehicles, ships, torpedoes for naval combat fleet, chemical weapons, equipment and engineering materials, liaison, radio location, vehicles, aircraft and helicopters, mechanical tank repair plants and armored personnel carriers, ammunition and explosives, background material, etc., because according to Minister Balluku, the Albanian army was in a very difficult situation in terms of armaments, because it had World War II armaments, which had been brought by the Soviets since the ’50s.
Fund: CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE ALBANIAN LABOR PARTY
Relations with the Communist Party of China
Contents: THE FIRST MEETING OF THE RPSH MILITARY DELEGATION (CHAIRMAN BY BEQIR BALLUKU) WITH CHINESE FRIENDS OUR PEOPLE, AND OUR ARMIES. ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF ALBANIA WHERE THE INTERESTS OF NATO AGREEMENT AGREEMENTS AND THE WARSAW TREATY CROSS, THE CHOVINIST AND ANNEXIST GOALS OF THE STATES AROUND US. ON THE MEASURES TAKEN BY THE ALP, FOR THE DEFENSE OF THE COUNTRY AND THE SUBMISSION OF SOME REQUIREMENTS FOR STRENGTHENING THE DEFENSE.
THE FIRST PLENARY MEETING OF OUR DELEGATION WITH CHINESE FRIENDS, DATED 7.11.1972
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Speech by the Minister of National Defense, Beqir Balluku, at the meeting with the Chinese delegation in Beijing, November 7, 1972
The state of our aviation is known to you. Although we do not base our country’s air defense and combat operations on the aviation firepower, our armed forces will always feel to a considerable extent the need for aviation cover, support, and transportation. Given the characteristic features of our rugged mountainous terrain, combat techniques, especially tanks and artillery, will have maneuvering difficulties and will not always come to the aid of ground troops and this gap will be filled by aviation under certain conditions and favorable circumstances. The navy will also need the help of aviation. Thus, with all the superiority in the air of our potential enemies, taking measures for combat security, our aviation in favorable situations will be able to perform the combat task in the interest of defending the country. Based on these considerations, as well as the fact that there are still Mig-15 aircraft in our army’s arsenal, which have been in use for more than 20 years, our aviation requirements are submitted in the list of requirements.
TANKS AND ARMORED TOOLS
Although the territory of our country is in a large part with rugged mountainous relief, there is a wide stretch of coastline and operational-strategic directions of land borders permeable by all types of combat equipment, especially by armored and suitable troops, for mass use of aero-landing troops. Enemies may aim in case of aggression with a surprise attack from the ground, especially with armored vehicles and extensive use of airborne and naval forces, to occupy key operational-strategic positions of our country, to prevent the mobilization and opening of our armed forces, to extend combat operations throughout the territory and to end the war on the regular front within a short time.
We, the enemy’s aim and other possibilities for aggression against our country, we oppose the people’s war, to raise all the people to war. But, in addition to these measures to soften the superiority of the enemy, in forces and means, it is necessary to have in the armament of the army those weapons that have: great firepower, high maneuverability, strong shield and require few people to be put to use. Such qualities in the ground forces have tank weapons. In the conditions of our country, the tank weapon will play a dual role.
In the initial period of the war, it will cover the mobilization and opening of the armed forces, in interaction with the aviation, AKA, and VVP forces, being ready to immediately enter into combat against the aerial-land and ground forces of the enemy.
After the opening of the armed forces in wartime organics, the tanks will be used: To increase the operational activity of the defense, as an important force for counterattack and counterattack. For the protection of directions of special importance, and to stop the explosion of enemy armor towards the main centers of the country, as well as for the destruction of airborne landings. With the tank fleet we have today, we cannot cover even the most basic needs, so comrades we are laying before you as a tightly calculated need for our park in the future, to expand with new tanks according to the list-requirements.
Seeing the difficulties of production, we agree to extend the quantity we require for 5 years to a longer range. Also for escorting tanks with infantry, for reconnaissance units, steering points and special forces, we need armored personnel carriers. In the framework of technical security and maneuvering of tank units and units, as well as for strengthening the central bases of tank repair, according to technical norms, it is necessary to give us the necessary amount of tank towers, repair carts. , of aggregates and auto-trailers for the rapid transport of tanks from one direction to another.
MARINE WAR FLEET
In the concrete conditions of our coast, the existing naval combat fleet, there are quantitative and qualitative shortages in light ships and armament. Therefore, in order for our light fleet to perform its task of protecting our coast, it is necessary to supplement it with the number of ships according to the tasks it will have in time of war, and at the same time to replace the technique and armament of old Soviet, with Chinese ships and armaments. To determine the most favorable composition of our fleet, the variant of the least forces that can be used by the enemies against our country is taken into account, in a landing of dentists for the purpose of invasion, that they in the first ranks will no longer have less than 6 infantry divisions.
In order to face these forces, as well as to develop the combat operations of our fleet in the further stages of combat at sea, in order for the enemy to be hit during its approach for landing and to destroy as many ships with landing troops of our fleet, in the current framework of the organizational structure it is desirable to have in its composition, not less than 6 squadrons of four torpedo and sea-to-sea missiles, combined with other types of submarine and submarine ships. Also for the calculation of the composition of our fleet, the configuration of our coast with possible directions for landing was taken into account, as well as the possibility of providing tunnel-based bases of ship departments, at points scattered throughout the coast.
To achieve this goal so far, ship bases and berths have been established for the existing fleet. By 1975, all foundations are expected to be completed to secure the 72-storey tunnel sites. Based on the above goals, it is necessary in the future to increase the firepower and to improve the qualitative and quantitative composition of the fleet according to the plan-demand.
ON SOME PROBLEMS OF GENIUS
In order to face the absolute superiority in the air of our potential enemies, as well as to increase to a high degree the efficiency and efficiency of the infantry, artillery, tanks, etc., the bases for the fortification of the Albanian theater of combat operations have been worked out. . Underlying them is the necessity to turn our country into an insurmountable fortress by land, sea, and air, traversed by a host of parallel and transverse front belts, equipped with highly fortified regions, focusing the main attention on the queue seen in important coastal and land operational-strategic directions. By persistently implementing this basic line in fortification, many successes have been achieved so far. The tactical zone of our defense is equipped with highly fortified regions of 40 percent.
Artillery is provided in tunnel-type fire positions to the extent of 35 percent, 88 percent of tanks, 85 percent of ammunition, 25 percent of fuel, etc. are housed in tunnels. To achieve these results, in addition to the mobilization and spirit of sacrifice of our people, an important contribution has been made by the unstinting help of the Chinese brotherly people. Mechanisms and materials provided by R.P. of China, for this purpose have created conditions for us so far to mechanize about 30 percent of the works for the opening of tunnels, about 20 percent of concrete, and 15 percent of the works for soil movement. For our army, which is known to have limited human resources, the issue of mechanization of fortification works is a vital issue. This is directly related to the deadlines for preparing the country for defense. Precisely for this, we raise the problem of fortification problem mechanisms.
It is understood that given the difficulties, and our requests for tools, to further increase the mechanization of works, predict an increase in the opening of tunnels by 75 percent, in concreting 60 percent, and in soil movement 35 percent. With the commissioning of the cement factory, the army will have to dump about 100,000 tons of cement in various works every year. To ensure the dumping of this quantity on objects, the transportation problem is very urgent and serious. The problem of mining in the coastal direction is very worrying for us. For that matter first we lack anti-tank mines. Domestic production gives us 40,000 mines a year.
This pace, can meet our needs in 1977, and secondly we completely lack marine profile mines, as well as mine mechanization tools in a short time. Also until the commissioning of the Metallurgical Plant in Elbasan, the army is in serious difficulty in securing the iron needed for fortification. For this purpose we have submitted the request for 25,000 tons of various reinforced concrete and prosciutto for 5 years. As we know, we are tunneling the military industry. This measure for our conditions ensures the stability of production even in the most difficult conditions of the war situation. During the realization of this task, many serious problems have arisen that have to do with different mechanisms and materials.
The development of electronics has changed today the qualities of the interconnection technique, making them small in size with high work efficiency and low energy consumption. By introducing into our armament, techniques of this nature will be beneficially improved, the interconnection system. It will be safer, more complete, more maneuverable, and many contradictions created by the existing equipment will be resolved, such as the lack of work waves, spare parts, the difficulty of food supply, etc. With the amount required in liaison tools, the completion of army staff will be improved by 80-90 percent. In all cases radio communication, from infantry battalions upwards we think to be provided with two channels, shortwave and very shortwave.
While in the General Command, in the corps and brigades to improve the steering system, we think of establishing transliteration interconnection, and expanding it with radio, aiming at a fast-acting, automatic, and secret interconnection. For some main tactical-operational directions, we plan to organize television interconnection, while to provide interconnection with submerged submarines, possibly to provide us with the necessary tools. We think that in the telegraph interconnection system by combining it with the radio interconnection, and densification apparatus to increase the working channels, to expand the transcript interconnection and to introduce in the equipment of the army in the higher instances, the photo telegraph.
The pace of construction of steering points in the tunnel system is much faster than the possibilities of technical equipment of interconnection centers, for work in such conditions. The current state of food security, and spare parts of the liaison apparatus, provides 20-25 percent of the needs for a year of war, calculating that in this case the apparatus will work on average 5,000 hours a year. The request also provides for the replacement of an obsolete piece of equipment, especially that of medium-sized ships and submarines, which have been in operation for 15-20 years, without making any necessary capital repairs.
The r / locative field detection system responds to the idea of operational-strategic construction of the country’s defense. It must be uninterrupted at all heights and distances, as well as adapted to the terrain and its main tasks. In the conditions of our mountainous terrain, very rugged and with a coastline of about 410 km. presents difficulties, requires numerous forces and tools to be able to create a complete detection system. The discovery of our air system, with the tools we have today, for altitudes up to 1,500 meters provides coverage of 20-25 percent of our airspace. While the distance between radio-technical posts is rare and with intervals and dead areas./Memorie.al
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