1923 – Turkey is proclaimed a Republic after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed “Republic of Turkey” as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923. Ankara was also chosen as the capital, having previously the attribute was held by Istanbul which remained the most important city after it. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, would be the first leader of modern Turkey.
1950 – Dies at the Royal Palace in Stockholm, Gustav V of Sweden. He was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death in 1950. Gustav was the eldest son of King Oscar II of Sweden and Sophia of Nassau, sister of Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Reigning from the death of his father Oscar II in 1907 until his death 43 years later, he holds the record as, Sweden’s oldest monarch and the third longest reign after Magnus IV and Carl XVI Gustaf. He was also the last Swedish monarch to exercise his royal laws, which were formally repealed only with the re-adoption of the Swedish constitution in 1974.
1956 – The Suez Canal Crisis officially begins. This military operation was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aim was to regain control of the western Suez Canal. It also aimed to oust Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalized the channel. After the fighting began, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations led to a withdrawal of the three invaders. This conflict showed the weakness of the UK and France and strengthened Nasser’s positions.
1960 – Born in the city of Peja, Kosovo Agim Çeku. Albanian military general and politician from Kosovo. Prime Minister of Kosovo from 2006 to 2008. Chief of Staff of the Kosovo Liberation Army during the last months of the Kosovo War, and at the end of the war he took over the leadership of the Kosovo Protection Corps, also as a general. Agim Çeku established contacts with the Kosovo Liberation Army around the mid-1990s. He resigned from the Croatian Army in February 1999. He later joined the KLA, where he was appointed Chief of the General Staff of the KLA. In the closing days of the Kosovo War, the KLA began providing regular information to NATO as well as attacking Serbian forces to expose NATO aircraft. With the end of the war in June 1999, Çeku oversaw the disarmament of the KLA and its transformation into the Kosovo Protection Corps. As Commander-in-Chief of the KPC, Çeku held the rank of Lieutenant General. Serbia still holds an international arrest warrant against him from the fighting in Krajina that led to temporary arrests in October 2003 in Ljubljana and in February 2004 in Budapest. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) has ruled that he is not wanted for war crimes.
1967 – In Montreal, Canada, the Universal Expo 67 takes place. It was considered to be the most successful World Fair of the 20th Century, with the largest number of participants to date and the 62 nations participating. He also set the record for one day of attendance for a world fair, with 569,500 visitors on the third day. Expo 67, closed at the end with a positive balance of visitors, over 50 million people visited this fair for a period of 6 months.
1969 – ARPANET is invented in the United States. Different as well, the Network of the Agency for Advanced Research Projects (ARPANET) was an early computer network, of packet switching. It was also the first network to implement the TCP / IP protocol suite. Both technologies became the technical basis of the Internet. ARPANET was originally established by the United States Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The ARPANET package change methodology was based on concepts and models by Paul Baran, Donald Davies, Leonard Kleinrock and Lawrence Roberts.
1971 – Famous American actress Winona Ryder is born in Minnesota. During her 33-year career, Ryder has debuted in films, Bram Stoker Dracula, The Age of Innocence, Little Women, Girl Interrupted, etc. Winona Ryder has been nominated for 20 national and international awards, winning only three of them. She is a winner of a Golden Globe Award and has been nominated for two Academy Awards, a BAFTA Award and four Screen Actors Guild Awards. In recent years she has been involved in several media scandals.
1998 – Hurricane Mitch occurs off the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Hurricane Mitch was the second deadliest Atlantic hurricane in its record, causing over 11,000 deaths in Central America alone. Over 7,000 lost their lives in Honduras and 3,000 in Nicaragua. These great damages to people and materials occurred, due to catastrophic floods from the slow motion of the storm. The economic damage was estimated at $ 6 billion. Mitch, was the deadliest hurricane in Central American history, surpassing Hurricane Fifi-Orlene, which killed slightly fewer people there in 1974.
2004 – On October 29, 2004, at 9:00 pm UTC, Al Jazeera Arabic television broadcast excerpts allegedly from an Osama bin Laden videotape addressing the people of the United States. In this video, he acknowledges responsibility for the 9/11 attacks, condemns the Bush administration’s response to those attacks, and presents those attacks as part of a campaign of revenge and motivated by his desire to fight Western nations. News analysts speculated that the video was released in time to influence the 2004 US presidential election, which would take place four days later.