1929 – Born in Naples, the famous actor Carlo Pedersoli internationally known as Bud Spencer. Spencer, was an Italian actor, professional swimmer and water polo athlete. He was known for roles in movies, comedy and action. In the genre also known as Spaghetti Western Spencer, he had his longtime film partner Terence Hill. The duo “won acclaim around the world and attracted millions of spectators to movie theaters.” Bud Spencer and Terence Hill screened, produced, and directed, over 20 films together.
1940 – During World War II, the Battle of Britain ends. The United Kingdom prevented a possible German invasion of its territory. During this campaign, mostly British air force engaged 2000 aircraft, of which 1700 were lost, including 1600 pilot’s dead, and 422 injured. More than 15,000 civilians were killed in the bombings. As Germany engaged, nearly 3,000 aircraft, of which 2,000 were lost and about 2,500 pilots killed or captured. This military operation would last 4 months.
1941 – After nearly 15 years of intensive work, the monument on Mount Rushmore in South Dakota is successfully completed. The National Memorial on Mount Rushmore is centered on a sculpture carved into granite faces in Keystone, South Dakota. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum created the sculpture model and oversaw the execution of the project from 1927 to 1941 with the help of his son Lincoln Borglum. The sculpture features the four heads of Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. The four presidents were elected to represent the birth, growth, development and preservation of the country respectively. The memorial park covers 5.17 km2, and is 1745 m, above sea level.
1961 – In the Soviet Union, the embalmed body of Joseph Stalin is removed from Lenin’s mausoleum to be burned with gasoline. After the cremation of this body, by order of Nikita Khrushchev, his ashes were secretly buried in a simple grave, inside the courtyard of the Kremlin. This move followed the process of de-Stalinism initiated by Khrushchev himself in the mid-1950s. To this day, only the body of Vladimir Lenin remains embalmed in the mausoleum, in relation to all the bodies of other USSR leaders.
1968 – During the Vietnam War, what became known in American political jargon as the “October Surprise” happened. Citing progress in the Paris Peace Talks, US President Lyndon B. Johnson informs the American nation that he has ordered a complete cessation of “all air, sea and land bombing of North Vietnam”. This news took effect on November 1st. But that did not work because two months later, Johnson’s Democratic Party lost the election to the Nixon Republicans.
1984 – In India, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated at 9:29 a.m. on October 31, at her Safdarjung Street residence in New Delhi. She was killed by her guards, Satan Singh and Beant Singh after Operation Blue Star. Indira Gandhi, died a few minutes later in the Medical Sciences Hospital of India.In Operation Blue Star, the Indian army attacked the Amritsar Golden Temple, which left the Sikh temple badly damaged. This killing took place as a result of the oppression of the Sikh minority in this country, and obviously the destruction of this temple.
2011 – One of the most famous Hungarian footballers, Florian Albert, dies at the age of 70. Albert was an internationally renowned Hungarian footballer, later manager and sports official. He was named European Footballer of the Year in 1967. Nicknamed the “Emperor”, he played as a striker, and has been described as one of the most elegant footballers of all time. During his sports career Florian Albert has won 25 national and international awards.
2018 – The tallest statue in the world was inaugurated in Gujarat, India. Also known as the Statue of Unity, it featured politician and independence activist Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Patel, was the First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior of independent India and the main leader of Mahatma Gandhi during the Peaceful Movement for Independence of India. It is 240 meters high, along with the pedestal. It took 57 months to build and cost about 25 billion Indian rupees.