By Dashnor Kaloçi
The tenth part
Memorie.al/ publishes some archival documents, extracted from the Central State Archive in Tirana (the fund of the former Central Committee of PPSh), where the personal archive of the former leader of communist Albania, Enver Hoxha, is also located, who in his political diary, which belongs to a long period of time, starting from May 1967, to December 1983, he has kept notes on the events of the Middle East, such as; the long Israel-Palestine conflict, the continuous wars between Israel and the Arab countries, the six-day war in 1967, where Israel defeated Egypt and the coalition of Arab countries, occupied the Golan Heights, the Yom Kippur war in 1973, where again Israel, after defeating the coalition of Arab countries (Egypt, Algeria, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen, Lebanon, Morocco, etc.) occupied the Sinai Peninsula, which he surrendered in 1979, blocking and closing the Suez Canal, (where Albania had vital interests, due to the aid that came from China by sea), until the civil war in Lebanon, at the beginning of the 80s, etc. What did the dictator of communist Albania, Enver Hoxha, write in his political diary where he analyzed, and what was the position of the official Tirana, about the conflict between Israel and the Arab countries, as well as the various countries that support them, such as; Soviet Union, USA, Great Britain, People’s Republic of China, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, etc.?! Was the information that Enver Hoxha had in June 1967 true, according to which, official Moscow would offer assistance to Egypt, bringing its Naval Military Fleet to the Mediterranean, in the event that official Tirana would accept that Soviet ships, to anchor in the ports of Durrës, Vlora, Shengjin, etc., or was it a paranoia of Hoxha, which caused the Albanian Army to switch to combat readiness no. 1, even mobilizing the reserve forces and those of the volunteer squads?! Regarding this, etc., we know the political diary of the former main leader of communist Albania, which will be published in several issues by Memorie.al
Continues from last issue
THURSDAY, JANUARY 6, 1983
ISRAEL’S ANTI-ARAB ACTIONS HAVE BEEN APPROVED IN WASHINGTON
The United States of America is the main supporter of all the anti-Arab political and military actions of the State of Israel. If anti-Arab plans are carried out from Tel Aviv, they are prepared and put on paper in Washington. This is a truth that events and life have proven. On January 4, Yitzhak Navon, the head of state of Israel, arrived in Washington for an “official visit and consultations” with the leaders of the United States of America. As news agencies report, on this occasion, he made a statement which has a well-defined purpose and meaning.
Among other things, he said: “The pre-war borders of 1967 do not guarantee Israel’s security”, while the city of Jerusalem will remain an “undivided” city and indeed the “capital of Israel”. After that, he added: “Israel will never accept the creation of an independent Palestinian state. The aggressive and arrogant characters of these statements, which constitute the essence of Israel’s anti-Arab and anti-Palestinian policy, do not require comment. These statements are made only with the approval of the patron, US imperialism, and are not pressure exerted by the Tel Aviv government on the US government for further assistance.
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1983
REAGAN THREATS THE PALESTINIANS
At the beginning of the year, a statement made in Washington by Yitzhak Navon, the head of state of Israel, about his country’s anti-Arab claims, made an impression on me. In that case, I noted that such anti-Arab statements, especially when made on American soil, could not be made by Navon or any other leader of the Israeli state without the knowledge and approval of the American government. Today I read in the news agency reports about a press conference by President Reagan in which he touches on the Palestinian people and their just struggle. What does Reagan say? The “peace plan package” for the Middle East that the Americans have drawn up must include “something in the nature of a homeland” for the Palestinians.
“No one,” he says, “has expressed himself in favor of a Palestinian state.” Therefore, for the head of American imperialism, the Palestinians are and remain a refugee people, without a homeland and, moreover, have no right to exercise their sovereignty. Immediately after these anti-Palestinians, Reagan added in his statements that: “if necessary”, American detachments, which are part of the “Multinational Forces”, deployed in Beirut, “would patrol South Lebanon”, i.e., near Israel’s borders, “to protect it.” Isn’t this full and open support for the anti-Arab statements Navon made about guaranteeing Israel’s borders in the territories of Arab occupation and refusal to recognize an independent Palestinian state?
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1983
A SERIOUS AND HARMFUL SITUATION WITHIN THE RANKS OF THE PALESTINIAN MOVEMENT
One of the main goals of American imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism, and Zionism and Arab reaction has always been to sabotage any movement for national and social liberation in the Middle East, which is one of the world’s most oil-rich regions. In this context, their immediate objective is to destroy the liberation movement of the Palestinian people, inciting strife and fratricide among Palestinians. While there were and still are contradictions between them on the issue of oil, spheres of influence or possession of strategic regions, on the liquidation of the Palestinian people, they do not have contradictions, but on the contrary, they have a silent universal agreement. Through those intrigues, through their secret activity, the agencies, through the compromising of individuals with money and bluster, the enemies of the Palestinian people, have achieved some results.
That there have been opposing tendencies, groups with different programs and goals, within the organization for the liberation of Palestine, is a truth that cannot be covered. In the same way, the other fact cannot be denied, namely that between these currents and opposing groups, they have been political quarrels, sometimes very serious, which have negatively affected the struggle of the Palestinian people to return to their homeland, in their national territories. Now, however, it seems to me that things have gone much further and the fighting has become so much deeper that it is endangering the movement itself and the continuation of the struggle of the Palestinian people in general. For several days, news agencies have been talking about a serious split in the ranks of the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization, between Arafat and one of his military aides, Abu Mousa.
These disputes have reached the point of the most severe armed clashes, consequences for both sides. Abu Mousa, supported by Syrian military units deployed in the Beqaa Valley, has risen in revolt and is fighting against Arafat and his supporters, forcing them to retreat to the besieged Lebanese city of Tripoli. What does Abu Musa want? Accusing Arafat of betraying the revolution and usurping the leadership of Palestine, the Liberation Organization, Abu Mousa, demands his resignation from its leadership and his final withdrawal with all his supporters, some 4,000 men, from Lebanese soil. For his part, Arafat is accusing Syria and Libya, with whom he has a dispute, of being the main instigators of Abu Musa and trying through him to take control of the entire leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization and prevent the war. Palestinian Liberation.
Meanwhile, the fratricidal fighting continues with the greatest severity, which is truly unfortunate, because it only serves to sabotage the Palestinian people’s war and revolution, to destroy their unity. The Israelis and all the enemies of Palestine and the Palestinian people are stoking and pouring gasoline on the flames of these fratricidal clashes, warming their bloody hands and rejoicing over the Palestinian blood that is being shed every day. Undoubtedly the Palestinian people and genuine Palestinian fighters are against this division and this fratricidal war and I want to hope that reason will triumph over the hatred inculcated by others, over individual jealousy and non-national interests. The Palestinian people and their brave fighters need unity among themselves to defeat their vicious and ruthless enemies, the Israelis and their patrons, the American imperialists, the Soviet social-imperialists and the Arab feudal-bourgeois reactionary forces. The division is in favor of these enemies and the anti-Palestinian and anti-Arab plans and conspiracies.
MONDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1983
THE END OF A VERY DAMAGED BRATRIC WAR
After a great and all-out war with pressure and facing the danger, even to the organized Palestinian forces and the great damage that could be inflicted on the local population, Arafat agreed to withdraw, together with his supporters, from the city. Lebanese of Tripoli, where he has been surrounded for several days. In the reports of the news agency, we see repeated facts which show that this business has been the issue that is being discussed now and by what means, about 4000 Palestinian fighters, along with their weapons and families, will be evacuated. Taking advantage of the new situation that has been created; the Israelis have set very difficult conditions: the Palestinians must leave, but first they must hand over their heavy weapons. Second, Arafat must be “handed over” to be “tried” and “executed”, for the “crimes he committed against the Israelis”! Otherwise, Israeli leaders say, their warships will attack and sink any ship carrying Palestinians. This is far from their arrogance and unrestrained ferocity, how much hatred for the Palestinian people has disappeared.
Meanwhile, those who started this fratricidal war between the Palestinian fighters, including the American Imperialists and the Soviet Social-Imperialists, are “holding their hands out”, “offering their help” and “Showing them the ways”, how to withdraw from Lebanon, etc. For example, it has been suggested that Arafat and the Palestinian fighters should leave on the ships of a neutral country in this conflict; that they should board the ships under the protection of the “multinational forces” stationed in Beirut; that the ships of transport must be protected on the high seas by French and Italian warships, etc. Meanwhile, the Israeli government, putting into practices its threats, has stationed that warship near the port of Tripoli and from time to time, conducts artillery attacks on the places where Palestinian fighters have begun to gather. We will see how this business continues. In any case, the Palestinian fighters have received another serious blow, which will undoubtedly have consequences for their further development, only to fight for to return to their homeland.
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 21, 1983
PALESTINIANS HAVE LEFT TRIPOLI
Arafat is on one of the Greek ships. The ships will go to a port in Cyprus; from there the Palestinians will go in different directions, for example to Tunisia, South Yemen and, by air, to Iraq. Last evening, I saw on TV several scenes of the forced departure of Palestinian fighters. Among them I saw men holding up a rifle in one hand and a little boy or girl in the other. Where are these homeless people now and where will they go? What awaits them where they go? What does the future hold for them, their families and their children? What bitter fate have the long-suffering Palestinian people had?! However, I am convinced that, despite these heavy blows, despite the war waged against them, from all sides, they will triumph. Nations cannot be conquered! The Palestinian people cannot be conquered! We have always been on the side of the Palestinian people and we always will be.
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 23, 1983
ARAFAT MEETS MUBARAK
I am following the odyssey of Palestinian fighters, who have not yet left Lebanon, to destinations unknown. I read a news agency report that one of the ships carrying the Palestinian fighters had entered the Suez Canal. Yesterday, Arafat, who was on board, landed at the port of Ismailia and went to Cairo, where he met with the Egyptian president, Mubarak. This meeting is causing a great sensation. Why? Because it is a completely unexpected thing, an unexpected meeting. As everyone knows, Egypt has accepted Camp David and agrees to have signed the peace agreement with Israel. It has established diplomatic relations with Israel. So far in Palestine, the Liberation Organization, and Arafat personally, have been against these actions of Egypt and, indeed, they left Cairo, for that reason. We will soon learn what is really behind this change and this sudden meeting of Arafat and Mubarak and what will be its consequences for the struggle of the Palestinian people.
THE MIDDLE EAST IN 1983
THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT
The year 1983 can be considered the year of consolidation of the de facto occupation of Lebanon by Israeli armies and the “multinational force”, which consists of American, Italian, French and British Special Forces. This invasion was carried out, first of all, to strike a new blow against and destroy the organized Palestinian forces, based in Lebanon. That is, the practical application of the second part of Israel’s package plan, the imperialist and Arab reaction to sabotage and completely paralyze the just struggle of the Palestinian people to return to their homeland. After fierce fighting, the Israeli army, armed to the teeth, with the most modern weapons and consisting of about one hundred thousand men, occupied Beirut and the main part of the southern area of Lebanon. The Palestinian fighters resisted heroically, but, abandoned by their falsehood, the friends in the end, were forced to retreat from Beirut to the areas north of the city and towards the Beqas Valley, under the “surveillance” of the “multinational force”.
However, the occupation of Lebanon and the implementation of the plan to destroy the organized Palestinian forces could not be fully achieved without breaking away and damaging the unity of the Lebanese and Palestinian peoples. Thus, in 1983, the world faced two fratricidal wars instigated by Israel, the United States and certain reactionary circles of the Arab world. A fratricidal war was instigated between different factions of the Lebanese people, between Christians and Muslims, and even between different Christian and Muslim sects, such as Druze, Shia, Sunni Muslims, Maronite Christians and others. This war had very serious political and economic consequences for Lebanon and, among other things, led to the destruction of the cosmopolitan and once wealthy city of Beirut. Second, the fratricidal war was that which was fostered within the Palestine Liberation Organization, between the Palestinian fighters, between Arafat and his supporters, on the one hand, and Abu Musa, Arafat’s right-hand man, on the other.
This war ended with complete success and the withdrawal from Lebanon of Arafat and about four thousand Palestinian fighters, partially disarmed. From all these fratricidal fights, it was Israel that benefited and the Palestinian people and their liberation movement lost. During this year, in the context of the campaign of terror against the defenseless Palestinians, and the efforts to expel from Lebanon about three hundred, to four hundred thousand Palestinians, who had settled there since Israel had expelled them from their homeland, the agents of Israel in Lebanon, organized and carried out in an unprecedented blood massacre, for its ferocity, in Sabra and Shatila, two unprotected Palestinian camps, on the outskirts of Beirut. In the dark of night and under the supervision of the regular Israeli army, which was ostensibly tasked with protecting these camps from surprise attacks by some Lebanese fascist gangs, in its service, Israel killed more than 1,500 people – men, women, old people and children, whole families, without discrimination, in the most barbaric way.
Those who committed this inhumane crime, as well as their instigators and supporters, to cover their tracks, were protected and remained unpunished. However, progressive opinion around the world condemned them and branded them as war criminals. During this year, it was a very serious situation created, also, in the internal political affairs of Lebanon. The country remained almost permanently without a government and administration capable of running affairs, caring for the people, and resisting the actions of the Israeli occupiers. The Lebanese reactionary circles took advantage of the situation, organized and armed themselves, and carried out military actions against the progressive Lebanese forces, especially against the Palestinians, contrary to the national interests of Lebanon. However, the Lebanese people were not defeated. They took up arms and violently resisted the Israeli occupation army and other invaders, especially the Americans and the French.
Israeli, American, and French military targets were attacked and heavily damaged. Therefore, the situation became no longer peaceful, even though the Israeli army occupied Beirut and the inspirers of Israel’s supporters sent thousands of “peacekeeping specialists” (multinational forces) to Beirut. Therefore the Israeli Air Force and Navy and the United States Navy, which included the Nimitz, Eisenhower, and Independence aircraft carriers, and dozens of heavy cruisers, continued to bombard and pound the positions of the Palestinian and Lebanese fighters, in the mountains around Beirut and especially in the Bekaa Valley, with all their fire, the American air force and naval artillery have also bombarded the joint Arab-Syrian forces, which have been deployed in the Bekaa Valley, with the approval of the Lebanese government.
As for the Soviet social-imperialists, as far as I can see from their actions and their bombast and their statements, they seem to be doing nothing at all, about these things that are happening, about the attacks that are being made on the Palestinians and the Lebanese, or even for the attacks that are being made on the Syrians. Why do I say this? I say this because even though the Soviet Union has a “friendship treaty” with Syria, it has played and is playing the role of the deaf and the blind. This is not the first time that the Soviet social-imperialists betrayed and left their “Arab friends” in the mud. The Soviet social-imperialists are interested, more than anything else, in selling them the maximum number of weapons, so that they can use them as quickly as possible and then buy more many weapons, than in carrying out the pledges they make in the “treaties of friendship” which they sign with one country or another, and in engaging in open conflict with the American imperialists.
Now there is more and more talk about a “Political Package Plan”, said to have been prepared and created under the personal patronage of the American President, Reagan, to resolve the Middle East crisis. This plan talks about the creation of a “fragmented Palestinian state” under the domination of the anti-Palestinian King of Jordan, but its main objective is to guarantee secure borders for Israel. This is the third installment of the reaction, in achieving the goals of Israel, American and Arab imperialism, for the dispersion of the Palestinian people and the sabotage of their just struggle.
Our people have special sympathy for the Palestinian people because they have waged and are waging a determined and heroic struggle, and we have supported and will continue to support them in the ocean of loneliness and betrayal that they find themselves in today. Although betrayed and abandoned, like the Palestinian people, they will triumph. They will triumph, because they are fighting for a just cause of theirs and will return to their homeland occupied by the Israeli aggressors, with the open support of the American imperialists, the Soviet social-imperialists and the reactionary forces of various Arab countries. Memorie.al