– How did Nexhmije Xhunglini report and spy on Enveri, the main leaders of the Communist Party and the District of Tirana and Durrës?-
Memorie.al / Regarding the Communist Circle of Tirana, which was also the largest in the country during the war, it seems that Enver Hoxha did not trust anyone, except for the “Delegate”, (nickname of Nexhmija), who transmitted everything, what was happening in this circular. It was the “Delegate” who sent the minutes of the meetings, as well as data on the activity and character of everyone. On the other hand, it seems that Enver Hoxha, until this moment, was not questioned much by the district communists, for the very fact that he was forced to infiltrate the “Delegate”, to get information about the main leaders of the Party. Communist of Tirana and Durrës District. The letter dated October 14, 1943, is just one of the informative letters that Nexhmije Hoxha, at that time Xhunglini, sent to Enver, from the bases in Tirana. There, details are given about the character of everyone, of course with pseudonyms. Mentioned in this letter are Liri Belishova, Gogo Nushi, Abdyl Këllezi, Kozma Nushi, Nako Spiru, Ymer Dishnica, Kiço Ngjela, Ramadan Xhangolli, Drit Çaushi, Shahin Ruka, Skënder Çela, Anastas Plasari, Qazim Vaqarri, Zeqi Agolli, Niko Opari, Bardhyl Mano, Fatbardha Toto, Qazim Çakërri, and others. The letter is long, and it mentions the communist and anti-fascist activities that take place in Durrës and Tirana.
However, the fact that the communists of Tirana tried to avoid Nexhmija, perhaps due to the very fact that they knew that she was reporting to her fiance, who is not seen favorably by the Communist Circle of Tirana, stands out. In the letter, the opposition of the Communists of Tirana to kill Anastas Palsari is also explained. On the other hand, the fact that Nako Spiru speaks to Nexhmija, as she says; “there are some devilish things and words that I don’t like”. Below we provide the complete transcription of the letter that Nexhmija sent to Enver.
Letter from Nexhmije Xhunglini, to Enver Hoxha, on October 14, 1943
Wanting to write to you long and wide, about what you ask me, I can’t write to you, not even briefly. Also today, I can’t report to you for a long time, why, we also had work (just one of our jobs) and we were busy, day and night. The day I received your letter, I had just come from Durrës. I stayed there for two nights and convened the Rini District, a wide conference with the youth leaders of the Durrës district and also convened a women’s council that was there.
Friends of the Youth Circle there were good, but with weak organizational views. The political secretary was clumsy and could not lead the meeting. Comrade “Iso” (Kozma Nushi, our note) was also there, but he did not participate in the discussions, like the other friends of the circle. Almost before she took me to my friends’ cell, because I had told her to prepare the council meeting, so that I wouldn’t be late, she had misunderstood.
A large part of the youth left Durrës in the districts and they had not been able to organize it yet. However, the distribution of propaganda material and the work of the little population that remained were not abandoned. Women have also left; therefore it appears difficult and impossible to form anti-fascist councils of women and youth, based on the mahallas. The young people of the conference seemed alive, although they did not speak much. Comrades have a will and if they are guided well and their tasks are divided well, we can move forward.
The cadres are few. Relations with the Party have been good. Contacts have been frequent. Comrade “Iso” has often participated in the youth circular. The attitude of the youth, in the days of Italy’s capitulation, was very good and active. He took some 200 rifles, 300,000 cartridges and some machine guns. I had a dinner at Dr. Zazani, your friend. He heard that you were engaged and wondered if I was your friend. He was happy and told me about your life in France. It makes you happy together with Leosta.
This week, we had a lot of meetings and conferences and meetings and preparations at night, that’s why I haven’t been able to report to you, because of course we have free hours, I wasn’t able to make “you” a report, why you should think about it for once. And sleepy, I didn’t dare to write to you, and then I was a bit impossible, since I had a headache, like a year ago. I don’t say this so that you will forgive me, or forgive me, because I am like “they said”, strong (although it is not beautiful) and not always stupid, so that I get bored. I’m telling you right now, that I will try to write to you once in three days, but I can’t assure you, because I find it difficult. Then why do you get angry every three days, only by me. It’s better not to know some things. (Don’t take this seriously; because I will write all our successes and stupidities, I’m afraid of criticism, no matter what they are, in heavy caliber or light).
I am sending two minutes of the last meetings of the party circulars. If I send them, why are you asking me, if you can’t understand many things, why during meetings the organizational section holds meetings and we visit the White House. Except for one thing, since friends “Deti” (Nako Spiru) and “Doctor” (Ymer Dishnica) are here, many times they don’t ask us much, I mean they talk and make decisions and that’s how we stay out. That’s why you didn’t bring them around the base where they are, or don’t ask, you don’t know what’s going on inside the organization.
The circular meetings were held in 10 days. Comrade “Deti”, or Dr., also participated, where the circulars sent by the Central Committee of the Party were also worked on. Outside of the meetings with special contacts, there was a lot of talk about issues of the organization and the attitude of the situation. Of course “Deti” has written about the development of the political situation here. Dallavere is playing hard, but as far as I can see, we are not drowning. Until now, we have the wheel well in our hands, we need now and always more, to stay on our feet so that our front and the organization of the party will always grow, its strength will always be seen.
The unmasking of Balli and other emerging parties must continue systematically and always stronger, until it breaks. Despite the fact that a part of the people, or not to accuse the people, a part of intellectual spectators, are ignoring us, or are telling us slowly, to soften us, we must continue stronger and stronger the enterprise that they started, why Balli felt himself very shocked and on the other hand the people, it takes a bit to get used to the attitude of these rotten people.
It seems to take advantage of their internal contradictions, to separate them, such as those from Vlora are outraged by Lura’s connection, because they are anti-Zogists; the youth of Balli, desperate for compromise, or desperate for fratricide, etc., and pretend they are ready to separate, to form the Social Democratic Party, boys, and that they will join us. But we know one thing that we learned, that they always agree to fight us, even if they are reactionary, even if they are losing their seats.
They are trying to copy us, they plan to form city units and they are trying to form the councils of the neighborhood, because they have felt the loss in the neighborhood. But they will not succeed. We were made to guard even from Balli that we are no longer afraid of the agents of the quaesture and the spies following us, the tartakut has entered.
With the formation of the sections, we will certainly be able to manage the situation better, because the work has expanded a lot and we could not cope with it. Now, not only do we no longer have time to sing the reports in the circular like before, although the organizational section examines them much earlier, still the meeting of the circular, it is not enough for us to beat all the issues as long and as it should . As you will see in the minutes, the last points are shortened, the proposals are not many and sometimes they are missing, why we lose sleep in the morning.
Now we are feeling what you want to tell me. The members of the circle have understood the role of leading the sector that has been assigned to them and are trying to organize it as widely and strongly as possible. Comrade “Hysen” (Gogo Nushi), feels the pulse of the organization and is the only one who follows the organization, in all sectors. He runs the circular meeting well, but he often gets stuck in his thoughts. Of course, he has not left the porter job at all. If “Hyseni” would talk a little and connect the flaws, it would be better, I mean more valuable. He can’t open his mouth at conferences, like the gathering of the party’s assets that we did here, but he speaks in the circular.
“Rosho” has taken on military responsibility, therefore effectively, as organizational secretary, it is not that he has left his cells and does not control them, nor does he have his own cell. In the circular meeting, he interferes very little and several times, he falls asleep from the beginning. He looks tired, maybe because he has been sick for some time. It has a flaw, which damages it quite a bit. He is confused and confused, often at work he loses his mind, I mean he doesn’t have his mind at all, what you say to him or what you ask him. I don’t trust much to be advised, or to make a decision with him.
Why is he at the beginning, at the peak of enthusiasm, and after a while, he gives the impression of being depressed. In one moment he says, we broke the muzzle of the ‘Balli Kombëtar’, in another he says, ‘Balli Kombëtar’ has 200 young people in Tirana! At one time he says that this or that assassination attempt is over, but it is delayed a week, 10 days, or fails altogether. Maybe it is not his fault and the truth is that there is not much, but the fault is that he gets the job done. Except when he is criticized, he accepts it.
In fact, the work of the organizational secretary is done by friend “Kila” (Kiço Ngjela) and he works well and tirelessly. It constantly communicates with cells and controls them. Together with “Hysenin”, almost every week, he makes circulars and written communications to the cells. I believe someone sent you. “Dyli” (Abdyl Këllezi), works with the nationalists and according to the reports of his friends, he works well and stayed close. “Dyli” is a trusted and serious friend at work. I believe he will become a good friend. Skenderi, (Çela), is a little scholastic and a phraseologist. There is a technique and he is not able to turn it well and perfectly. There is a friend outside the circle who could do his job better as a member of the circle. He just has the will to work, but he doesn’t know how to organize himself well. Shahini (Ruka), is a hardworking and silent fellow. Besides, it is very pessimistic, for that unit, maybe it transmits pessimism to us.
As for the “Delegate”, finally. it hardly dawns on you that he should raise his voice a little more, he has started talking a little more in the circular. Maybe he feels himself in the height of the responsibilities that the party has assigned him, he is trying to achieve them and he is confident that he will achieve them, because he does not lack the will, just as every communist cannot. Comrade “Delegate” is trying to bring out a lot, because the sectors are very wide, but maybe she lacks tactics to solve the issue more easily. Some “Alla Volturua” advances are noted and there is hope, especially if there will be continuous attacks from the Arbana front.
The sections that we have divided have certainly begun to work somehow and I believe that the conclusions will also be felt. The organization is growing every day and although friends have left, in different ways, we have 18 cells with 120 members. Every week friend’s show up for the party, certainly not by the dozens. Politically, the comrades of the party are doing well and all the directives of the Central Committee of the Party have been received well and have reached their meaning. On standing with ‘Balli’, there is no doubt or hesitation in the ranks of the party, not only, but in the ranks of party sympathizers, educational groups, as well as in the youth. Of course, two or three sympathizers, or young people, do not raise any objections. Politically underdeveloped, very young cadres, but there is determination and love for the party. The new element that has entered the party is very enthusiastic about the work of the party and tries to create jobs.
The agitation has expanded, but organizationally, it has not been done as much as it could be. It is possible to advance by 100 km. per hour, we go at 50. I say this, as far as within our organization is concerned. There is a broad mass movement. Party members work and put this measure into motion. Almost all of them are busy at work. There are 60 units that collect friends. They have organized the conferences of the mahallas. They have helped the movement and distribution of propaganda material, they organize educational groups and some have their own jobs. 50 of the friends are very good and know how to communicate well. Next time, I can make the table for all the friends, their qualities and work. Also their class, because today I am not able to do it.
The National-Liberation Council of Tirana was formed, with a leadership of 9 people and two are representatives of women and youth. There are 4 party members, 3 to 4 group members and the rest are good national liberationists. The conference was attended by 39 people and took place all day. They are excited and have started working. A wide movement is felt in the neighborhood. It feels like our job. From extensive conferences, 29 councils of neighborhood and offices were elected. Conferences were held with a neutral element to clarify.
The Anti-Fascist Council of the Union of Women’s Youth was formed, from a conference of 58 people, a broad council of 25 people was elected that will also elect the presidency of 9 people. There are 5 party members, the rest are mostly groupists, a good n-liberation part and three or four, a little shaky for our tough stance. Sections are assigned. Aid this month has tripled, but the wool and food campaign is not very successful.
The Anti-Fascist Youth Committee of Tirana was formed. A conference of young delegates of 36 people, elected the committee of 9 people and two assistants, four members of the youth circle, three of our youth and two anti-fascists, three or four girls and 5 boys. 22 youth councils have been formed in the villages. Two extensive conferences were held, for the formation of the new society, and from one, the council that participated in the conference came out. We are forming a sports society. The maximum of the conference has reached 100 voters.
About 1,600 young men and women participated in the elections. However, it is quite possible that the Communist Youth Union organization gathers 3,000 young people, but our young people have not understood well that they all have to participate in the conferences, another part, they have not been able to come Now the councils will register, as I said, the youth of the neighborhood and hold constant conferences, if the enemy will let us comfortably.
Different courses have been formed in the villages and have started functioning, especially those of nursing and illiteracy. Some 6-7 young men and women have deserted from ‘Balli’ and participated in the meetings of the neighborhood, even one group made a harsh statement against the ‘National Front’. Even in the councils, elements that at least favored the slogans of “Balli” have participated. The communist youth, of course, has been the fire of the neighborhood. Even the youth circle has been on the move.
Now that the youth is 9, why Zeqiu (Agolli), who went to Dibër with two other friends, left. Effectively now, we are 8, because Liria (Liri Belishova) is sick with her eyes. We met regularly and had a lot to organize. Friends work well. Comrade Niko, (Opari) the organizational secretary, is active and stays close to the youth and controls and directs them.
Although he has some narrow organizational views, he has gained good experience in the youth and knows all the youth. He has a penchant for monopolizing work, and if you didn’t remember, he should be advised and decides together with me, to slip away, open letters and answer them, without remembering to forward them to me. Friend Driti (Caushi), I am a good friend who works without talking too much. He is very interested in youth. My friend Qazim (Vaqarri) is a bit lazy and heavy. He does not participate in the circular talks and is not very connected.
I don’t know why and how, he got into the Central Youth Committee and even I didn’t have the slightest knowledge, except when he came to the meeting we had, where Xhakua (Ramadan Xhangolli) was. Pieroja is also interested and works as hard as she can. He is a new friend and he will be good. Friends and they work well. The girls’ sectors have had a lot of progress and are doing well. Friend Naxhije (Duma), who works with the girls of the Institute, quickly understands what you say. It is felt in her, the development she has made since joining the party. She will become a good friend, but she is hindered today by the family.
Fatbardha Toto “Gjirokastritja” works tirelessly with the girls of the house, even though she is sick. He has the will to work and the ability, especially for the youth, is not lacking. Liria (Belishova), is one of the clearest and smartest friends. That friend grows every day and will become a valuable friend for the Party. Works well with pioneers and actively participates in circular discussions. I also forgot my friend “Lola”, (Bardhyl Mano), the worker, not because he is a worker, but because he is a little disconnected from the youth, because he is very busy with the party. Is a good and hardworking friend, understood but not well developed, gives good hopes.
I don’t have much time to devote to youth. I just went to the conferences that we held; I have connections with the educators and now finally with the core of the students. “Deti” gives the opinion that I should leave the youth circle, so that I can dedicate myself more to the women’s sector. But I don’t like it, because I love working with the youth and effectively, I disconnect from the youth, because as a member of the Youth Steering Committee, I’m not doing anything.
The youth here has increased the ranks and is constantly increasing them, but not as much as they could be increased here in Tirana. Counting the youth that have left in all the other cities and towns, the communist youth organized here has exceeded 1000. It has prepared youth cadres and in almost all the youth circles in Albania, there are members and organizational secretaries of the youth of Tirana. Recently, due to the departure of the good element in other cities, Dibër and Çeta, I felt the weakness of the cadres, especially among the student youth.
There is a good thing about the youth here, because there is an opportunity to replace the work of those who leave and there is an opportunity to raise new cadres. Since the party’s Asset Country conference, we have given the party; 38-40 members. That all, with one exception, are quite raised, active and very determined. Only the working youth is quite low politically and organizationally. They are busy with private work, they lack the development to rise quickly and we have made the mistake in this sector, we have let the weakest members of the circle, the workers, work, and they have not been able to turn it around.
We have done some new work and we believe that there will be good results. Youth is a good and tireless agitator. Its eyeballs for ‘Balli’ and the enemy. To take it in general, it becomes a lot of work…! If you look at the organization, you will find many things that are not working. There are shortages in the collection of the asset, it is not working as it should in the youth and what are most lame are the educational groups, how do they collect properly. Now we have formed 6 theoretical courses, with 13 people in each sector and they will be led by 6 party comrades.
We will communicate the results. Tirana has 27 units, some of them have been added, but not all of them are active, as they should be. Neyse, we are forming beliefs that we will get along well. Mobilization among the youth, since those of the units have been excluded, has not been very successful, neither in the organized youth, nor in the anti-fascist youth. The campaign continues. Rini here likes to stay in Tirana, because he hasn’t eaten hard wood for a long time.
A few days ago, we held a conference of 50 or so young people, responsible for the youth organization here, and Comrade “Deti” came to conduct the conference and Comrade Dr. (Ymer Dishnica). Such conferences are worth the youth. We organized the youth technique. We have two polygraphs and 6 typing machines. The technical teams have also been arranged. Let’s see how it will work. We have ready-made subjects on wax paper, such as “The Soviet Woman”, “Socialism in the new society”, and the summary of the book Mother.
Work, there is enough to do. Youth finance is added every month. It reaches 16,000 fr. For circles, we are thinking a little more now. Both the youth team and party comrades were sent to organize the councils. At the end of this month, the youth have the opportunity to organize their Anti-Fascist Councils and on November 5, we let the district committee be elected, from a conference of 100 or so delegates. These are not plans, because we have work at stake. The ground for the organization of the Anti-Fascist Youth was prepared.
You told me to write you long and wide about the work in the youth party, with successes and failures. While I was writing, I didn’t tell him all the flaws and successes. I’m tired and I can’t write you maybe, clear things. I’ll write to you next time. Ask about the relationships of friends here, with each other. I am not able to give you accurate and correct things. I, indeed, have often been from their base, but I passed there for work that I had and I was not able to notice many things and I was not always present in the talks that they do. I don’t have concrete things, but I have impressions.
As for the relations of “Rosho” with “Det”, I have not noticed. If he forgets something that is ordered, I believe he will do it with some hindsight. But it seems that “Rosho’s” connections with Dr. are more friendly, so to speak, more of a joke than work. Both “Roshua” and “Hyseni” talk with “Det” on the line, and “Hyseni” consult more with “Det”. “Deti” with his work, was able to gain the authority he lacked in “Hyseni” and “Rosho”, you remember “Hysen’s” opinion about “Deti”, when he got out of prison, from now on, yes he opens his eyes more.
“The sea” works a lot. He constantly holds meetings with friends of the organization and has written. He is smart and looks ahead and is not as pessimistic as before. Another thing, there are some devilish things and strange words that I don’t like. The cooperation of “Det” with Dr. is good. I didn’t notice anything. Dr. He has held meetings with the nationalists, but he doesn’t think too much, I think. I often see him sitting idle, without writing. Writing is lazier than speaking…!
He has spoken long and well at conferences and his sympathy here is increasing. Asht became very popular among the youth and the people, as a good orator and as “head”. Although, as I think, his position is now a little difficult, because reports, letters are addressed to “Det”, in the active Party here, the direction of “Det”, but he does not make himself, I am convinced that he appreciates it and is advised. I have the impression that there is more consideration for the judgment of “Det” than yours…!
Ah, I appreciate your will, but for example: When you sent the circular of the Central Committee of the Party, about the disapproval of the Mukje Conference, in the above conversation, he told me: “The circumstances in which it took place should be studied better of course, if I were there, i.e., together with my comrades in the Central Committee, I wouldn’t make a mistake either”! That is, what he did, you can do too.
Then he said; also what I told you in Labinot, which is not a big mistake, etc., but I also told my comrades that I will give an account to the Central Committee and you, with your connection, give your opinion. The truth is, that before you leave Dr. to Mukje, when I told her not to take “Hysenin”, she told me: “You have to know, my friend, its hard work here, the responsibility is great. I want to have 2 or 3 friends to consult with me”.
What’s more, even the counselors fell in. She feels now, the mistake she made, which has cost us a lot. But Dr. It’s a nature that doesn’t bother itself too much, at least that’s how it seems from the outside. In the early days, I was very upset, of course Dr., I am a friend who cannot help but feel his responsibility. As far as the conspiracy is concerned, it’s totally out of the question.
I am afraid that we will experience it, with so many movements they make, in the houses where we live. More than from police surveillance, more from various contacts and people who don’t know about any conspiracy. More than from espionage, from naivety, the basics can be revealed…! But the “bereqavesa” that has no reaction, but even with this, we have let go of the rope a lot.
I communicated to my friends about all that you ordered me, about the control and cleaning of some. As “Deti” wrote to you, they are not of the opinion that we decided there. They don’t believe that I reported the case of A.P. (Anastas Plasari) and others correctly, so they are hesitant to do an unjust act, even though I presented what I reported to you. Although I don’t like to answer petty accusations, it wasn’t me who told them to bring A.P. there, but I said what you told me, but after they refused, I made the mistake of approving the thought that may A. P. come to you.
With all that, I’m not sorry; you can say whatever you want about me. Are you tired of reading this whole newspaper, don’t curse me, just share as much as you want. And one thing you need at the beginning, but I was writing, when I found out that Qazim Çakërri was seriously injured. We kept it for 4-5 days. After the day, near your house and on the street, you can go to school, when you went with 3 people, they shot him, what do you want, he is not dead. Even Mustafa Kruja saved us. The attack made a big impression”./Memorie.al
14.10.1943 Social greetings