Memorie.al publishes an unknown archival document issued by the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP), where the then Minister of Internal Affairs, Kadri Hazbiu, sends a report- information, to the secretary of the Central Committee of the ALP, Ramiz Alia, regarding the situation that prevailed in the country after the events that are taking place in some Eastern European countries, such as: Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, etc., which had an impact large also in Albania, mainly in the “enemy element”. What is said in that information report with the logo “Top secret”, of Minister Hazbiu, regarding the “agitation and propaganda” that was carried out by some people, mainly intellectuals, in the districts of Tirana, Durres, Shkodra, Peshkopi, Lushnja, Lezha, Rrëshen, Gjirokastra, etc.
The events that took place in the first months of 1968 in some Eastern European countries, such as the demonstrations in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia, but also in some western countries (mainly with students), such as France, Italy, etc., had an impact. strong and alarmed the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, who was afraid of a “domino effect” on our country, because Albania at that time was considered by “revisionist” countries (and was in fact), one of the weakest “links” in the entire Communist East. Among other things, this is made known by this archival document dated 14.IV.1968 (Fund 14. Ap. Central Committee of the ALP, Structure, File 88. Year 1968) and titled “Top secret” , which is a report-information of the Minister of Internal Affairs of that time, Kadri Hazbiu, sent to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the ALP, Ramiz Alia on the topic: “On the hostile comments and slogans of the enemy element. So, starting from the tense situation in the international plan, with a high degree of sensitivity (typical for dictatorial communist countries and regimes), official Tirana was being shown to be very attentive, as it feared that they could happen in Albania as well. And this is clear from the archival documents found in the Fund of the Central Committee of the ALP, where the Ministry of Internal Affairs has sent a series of information and reports to senior leadership, informing him in detail about what was happening. at every corner of the country, from south to north. And not without reason, as it seems from this document, but also from a series of other archival documents that are in the relevant files in the state archives, the situation at that time was precipitating in such a way that the communist regime of Tirana, after the intervention of Soviet military troops in Czechoslovakia, passed the army on alert no. 1, same as in a state of war. And more than any aggression from outside, the communist regime feared any movement from within. In this context of the logical course of events, this period of time (throughout 1968), is one of the most alarming and frightening periods that regime has gone through, until 1990 when the embassy event took place.
The letter of the Minister of Internal Affairs, Kadri Hazbiu, sent to Ramiz Alia after the events that were taking place in Czechoslovakia, Poland, etc.
MINISTER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS “Top Secret”
FIRST DIRECTORY Tirana, on 14.4.1968
Nr. 1025, Prot.
Subject: On the hostile comments and slogans of the enemy element
SECRETARY OF K. Q. OF P. P. OF ALBANIA
SHOKUT RAMIZ ALIA
The recent events in Czechoslovakia and Poland, the demonstrations of workers and students in France, Italy and Yugoslavia, etc., and the imperialist-revisionist propaganda on the paths of democratization and liberalism of these countries have influenced the enemy element to hope that changes in such, sooner or later, there will be in our country as well. As a result of these events there seems to be an activation and intensification of hostile activities through slogans and comments expressed against the revolutionary measures of the Party, in connection with dictatorship and class struggle, workers’ control, school revolutionism, arts and culture, etc., which call as extreme measures taken by the leadership, for fear of the impact of these events that may bring course changes in our country as well.
These comments were mostly made in the districts: Tirana, Durrës, Shkodër, Korçë, Peshkopi, Vlora, Fier, etc., by special persons and in close hostile districts in cities and villages, among them some young intellectuals, an element of declassed and enemies which belong to these strata: 28% rich, 58% middle class, and 14% poor.
Hostile comments and slogans the enemy element has made mainly in the following directions:
On the events in Poland Czechoslovakia etc.
Enemy elements, in their comments on these events, say: “The Czechs do not go to capitalism, as they say, because there the means of production are in the hands of the state. They are advanced peoples and do not tolerate dictatorship, demand broad freedom of speech, in art, culture, etc. They could not stand the election of an absolute government and did everything without bloodshed, proved more intelligent than the Hungarians. The events in Czechoslovakia are natural, that this path will gradually be followed by all socialist countries. By doing so, they saved the people from poverty, political prisoners are being released, they are establishing relations with the West, and this is the path of Tito, who with his policy is eating the heads of one by one the socialist countries and is coming out triumphant. What happened in Czechoslovakia is a normal thing, something that life itself demanded and the conditions were ripe.
America intends to make Czechoslovakia a model state to influence other communist states as well. The Czech leadership is following the right path, but our radio and press do not show the reality, the Prague radio shows say that the situation there is quite normal, contrary to what they say. The socialist camp is being destroyed, and this started in Czechoslovakia and Poland, which took off the mask of Marxism. These events showed that the Czech people, educated in the sense of trade and profit, could not stand the communist system. “The Czechoslovaks have never loved communism and that is understandable, they are a people with a cultural and political tradition.”
These events, the enemy elements relate to the situation in our country and say: “Events in Czechoslovakia have influenced other countries and this influence will come to our country and will have its effect. There is no freedom in our country, they talk about the Czechs, that they are opening the borders, but let them try it once and they will see that there will be no one left here. The situation here is maintained by the dictatorship that if it were not for this, it would have done worse here than Czechoslovakia. If you have not found them so far, it does not mean that they will be saved forever. “We can endure some more, then we will change the forms of work and living.”
On strikes and demonstrations in capitalist and revisionist countries
Commenting on the demonstrations of workers and students in France and Italy, they say: “That there they have much wider freedoms and rights than in our country, that they strike and demonstrate, speak out against the government and openly demand their rights. of them, not like here with us who were asking for something, to hit in prison “. Some intellectuals in Shkodra say that “in France and Italy these movements are led by the communists to overthrow the bourgeoisie, but ours curse the communists of these countries as bourgeois and red.” “As for the demonstrations in Yugoslavia, they say that these will happen in other Balkan countries, as a result in Albania as well.” An enemy element in Lezha, comparing the situation of the youth in those places with the youth in our country, which according to him is “devastated” by the actions and the military shelling, says: “They want you to fall here in the country our to make military exercises He says: “They want you to fall here in our country to make military jokes, so that it never occurs to them to strike.”
Against the leadership of the Party and the state
Enemy elements vomiting resentment against the leadership of the Party and the state, say that: “Leaders fight for their interests, they issue laws that are contrary to the interests of the people. Part of the leadership understands this but does not deny that they are afraid. Formally it is said that power belongs to the people, but in fact it is in the hands of two people. “Nobody can speak freely and everyone says amen to those raised by Enver Hoxha and Mehmet Shehu”. An enemy element in Lushnja says: “If they had not stained their hands with blood, (the leadership) would have turned the road like Khrushchev, but they are afraid that they will be accountable to the people.” “Leaders are old, and if something unexpected happens, it will happen in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. Since Stalin died, everything has changed.”
An enemy element in Durrës says: “That hopes should not be lost, that they are surrounded and will not be able to escape the siege, like the work of a bird that is surrounded by hunters and does not escape without being killed.” In Peshkopi, an enemy element states: “That the boys of Kalosh should not work on the farm, but get up and kill any of the district leaders. “A note must be kept for all those who fight us, as the situation will not remain like this, but will change.” In Shkodra, regarding the conviction of some clerics, they say: “They did not know how to work against the government, because with some people this government will not be overthrown, if there was no disruption of the leadership of the Party and the government and if there were no conditions for outside help.” .
An enemy element in Durrës, states that: “Only Albania has remained in a medieval state in Europe, and how can it not be so, when two million people work for two people. Today we live in this type of feudalism that the Party leader has 4-5 villas, when people do not have the necessary housing conditions, there are 4-5 cars, when an engineer does not even have a bicycle. What do the people need to know who owns them, when the keys to the villas are held by the servants of the leaders and when their children roam in cars? “There is no place in the world that has such a relationship as ours, between the lives of leaders and what people do.”
On staff turnover and labor control
Regarding the policy of staff turnover, the enemy element states that: “In this way they liquidated the suspicious people, while with the workers’ control they want to liquidate some leaders who are undesirable for them and to justify themselves as if the measures take them away. On the other hand they want to make as many spies as possible. An enemy element in Durrës says: “To live today you have to be servile, you have to be dirty and a spy because that’s how they want you”. And an anti-party element in Lushnja says: “We have criticized the trio in the company for a long time, but they have not listened to us. “These have existed and will exist, but they are now hitting them to justify themselves and scare others.” In Rrëshen, an enemy element says: “The mass can not exceed the target of criticism, because it can not criticize the social, political and economic system as is done in Czechoslovakia. “The dictatorship of the proletariat in our country is not led by the masses, but by the Party.”
On the revolutionization of the school
There are various comments, expressing distrust of the measures taken by the Party. They accuse the education authorities that these measures will lead not to strengthening but to weakening the school. An intellectual, reactionary, commenting on the speech of Comrade Enver on March 7, among other things, said: “That you can not impose an ideal of education on society, just as you can not impose on society in other areas a single ideal “. Speaking of the impossibility of developing the teachers’ horizon due to the lack of necessary literature and the difficult conditions in which they live and work, they are not able to perform all the tasks assigned to them. They also talk about the difficult living conditions of students, which result in the benefits are not the same, so teachers indignant at this situation, can not ask for more from them. How can one think of 100% passability when students do not have equal economic conditions, mental development, etc. It turns out that the propaganda made about this is a lie.
They accuse that everything is done according to the instructions from above and that the employees of education do not know what to do, that these instructions are contradictory to what is required before, while for the removal of the note they say: “Such abuse happens as it is known with money “and the grade can not disappear in the current conditions, just as money can not disappear.” Some teachers in Tirana say: “This is a wrong tendency and goes from one extreme to another, because now it has become a big mess and we do not know what to do. The situation has become very difficult in education, it is time to retire, so as not to interfere at all in these reforms that are expected to take place. “Even we are not clear what will be done, but nevertheless something will be done that will not be swallowed.” Some teachers in Korça have commented that: “All that they want to do is to the detriment of education, sending students to volunteer actions, training, etc., they are left behind from lessons. “There was no such thing before and the school was stronger.”
In Gjirokastra it was commented that: “These measures are ruining the school. “In other countries, such as Czechoslovakia, etc., there is liberalism, but there the cultural level and family education are more developed.” An enemy element in Gramsh said: “We are doing a lot of work. “Comrade Enver’s speech on March 7 is a repetition of all the things that have been said before by various people and professors.” And such an element in Rrëshen says: “Today there is only politics in school and not quality teaching, the personality of the teacher has fallen and the god in school today is the youth itself. “Schools used to be stronger and better than universities today.”
In some districts such as Tirana, Durrës, Shkodër, etc., there are comments that the revolutionization of the school is done only for the purpose of cleansing the teachers with a bad past and they express their dissatisfaction that they will suffer from such a thing, even in Shkodra there are such expressions: “ The Prime Minister has said that we will exclude from education those with bad backgrounds and we will not give them scholarships to their children. That’s not fair. “So far we have eaten bread with a pencil, but now for us the end is coming.” As a result of this, in the ranks of teachers with bad political composition, different opinions appear such as: “Although we are dissatisfied with this government, we in a way that we can not go out, today should not enter.” Others say: “We have to organize in groups in case the situation plays.”
On literature, art and culture
There have been comments from some intellectuals, who, influenced by external events, speak differently against the Party’s measures for the revolution of art and culture, speak of “censorship”, which allegedly exists in our artistic creativity and in our publications, for recipes and dictations from above, for apoliticism, liberalism and democratization as necessary conditions for the development of art and literature following the example of Czechoslovakia and other revisionist countries, in this regard they say: “The former time of performances is gone, now the state of art is getting worse and worse. That what pleases and soothes the feelings is classical music, but they want man to be rude, as is our life and time. Now there is no more music in our country, and if it continues like this, in 2-3 years everything will be over.
It has been said many times in Albania that people have the right to speak and write in the press what they think, but if you speak freely, the pressures start immediately. All that we are hearing makes us collect and reject the books and knowledge of Marxism. As it is done today, one should not even write things in social conflicts, because it causes trouble to oneself, it should be done as some completely untalented people do, dramas, posters, without conflicts and emptiness in which one sees nothing artistic. They (the Party) do things in disguise, for example, when a person according to them should be discredited, appoint people to put lightning rods on them, or gather the collective where there are people ordered in advance to stand up and hit him and this seems to come out of the masses: but in reality nothing comes out of the masses and every decision is prepared from above. Some intellectuals express dissatisfaction with the lack of contact with the outside world, with world art and culture and say that in this way science and culture can not be developed in our country.
Regarding this, an intellectual in Durrës says: “We as engineers are not given the opportunity to express our skills, after the way for foreign literature is closed, in Tirana the people who deal with translations have become confused.
“They are tightening their grip and want to do cleanups in art and literature, as the Chinese do, to make them understand that we are also running parallel to the cultural revolution.” Whereas in Shkodra an intellectual says: “Politics is put on art, this is not fair at all, because the people need art and not politics. If works, one political and the other artistic, are published, it is understood that the latter will be read more. If this continues, we will achieve the elimination of everything artistic, replacing it with politics. “By putting politics in the forefront and over art, they do not allow the translation of the best works of world literature and art.”
MINISTER OF INTERIOR
(Central State Archive. Fund 14. Ap. Central Committee of the ALP, Structure, File 88. Year 1968)