By Dashnor Kaloçi
The seventh part
Memorie.al/ publishes some archival documents, extracted from the Central State Archive in Tirana (the fund of the former Central Committee of PPSh), where the personal archive of the former leader of communist Albania, Enver Hoxha, is also located, who in his political diary, which belongs to a long period of time, starting from May 1967, to December 1983, he has kept notes on the events of the Middle East, such as; the long Israel-Palestine conflict, the continuous wars between Israel and the Arab countries, the six-day war in 1967, where Israel defeated Egypt and the coalition of Arab countries, occupied the Golan Heights, the Yom Kippur war in 1973, where again Israel, after defeating the coalition of Arab countries (Egypt, Algeria, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen, Lebanon, Morocco, etc.) occupied the Sinai Peninsula, which he surrendered in 1979, blocking and closing the Suez Canal, (where Albania had vital interests, due to the aid that came from China by sea), until the civil war in Lebanon, at the beginning of the 80s, etc. What did the dictator of communist Albania, Enver Hoxha, write in his political diary where he analyzed, and what was the position of the official Tirana, about the conflict between Israel and the Arab countries, as well as the various countries that support them, such as; Soviet Union, USA, Great Britain, People’s Republic of China, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, etc.?! Was the information that Enver Hoxha had in June 1967 true, according to which, official Moscow would offer assistance to Egypt, bringing its Naval Military Fleet to the Mediterranean, in the event that official Tirana would accept that Soviet ships, to anchor in the ports of Durrës, Vlora, Shengjin, etc., or was it a paranoia of Hoxha, which caused the Albanian Army to switch to combat readiness no. 1, even mobilizing the reserve forces and those of the volunteer squads?! Regarding this, etc., we know the political diary of the former main leader of communist Albania, which will be published in several issues by Memorie.al
Continues from last issue
SATURDAY DECEMBER 10, 1977
THE TRAGEDY OF THE ARAB PEOPLES
It is indeed a great misfortune for a number of Arab peoples of the Middle East, who have been and continue to be the prey of American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism. They have been and are under the permanent spell of intrigues, both of the Warsaw Treaty, in the person of the Soviet Union, and of NATO, in the person of the United States of America, which aim to have in these countries, the areas of influence, have markets and military bases. The goal of both superpowers is to keep these peoples divided and, in fact, to this day, they have achieved this goal. As I have said on other occasions, these peoples are not simply Arabs, but, regardless of this, they can be called such.
Only one thing is true, they are connected by a religion and it plays a big role in these countries. The Arab peoples, regardless of the name of their states, in most cases, are still under the rule of kings, shahs, emirs, who, with the exception of clothing, in many respects govern with the characteristic medieval methods of feudalism and are associated with the great imperialist powers. Therefore, it cannot be said that they have gained full, true freedom and democracy. All these states and peoples, since; Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Emirates of the Persian Gulf, form, as they call themselves, the “big family of the Arab nation”.
But times and events have shattered this great family, so this name does not serve them very well. Each of these states can be and can be called a member of the Arab nation, but all of them cannot and do not form the same Arab nation. They are close to each other, each country has its own, independent and sovereign state, they have common interests, but these common interests are not and can never be in accord with the interests of each country, taken in particular. Why? Because the economy, their wealth is unequal. Not only for this reason, but some of these states are led by individuals or by groups of people or parties that have nothing democratic about them.
The main assets, sometimes large, sometimes average, especially oil, have been put up for auction and, in its robbery and exploitation, the American monopolies, that is, the American imperialists, have gained a great advantage. As far as the Soviets are concerned, today they are trying to maintain a turbulent state in this area, they are trying to politically and ideologically influence the governments and parties of the Arab countries, to have military and strategic bases in this basin. The rivalry between these two superpowers, for political, economic and military supremacy in this region, causes and deepens the current division, among the Arab peoples, among the Arab states. In this region, in addition to these peoples, there are also the Palestinian Arab people as well as the Israeli people.
Here the Israeli population has not been in significant numbers, but over time, especially after the creation of the state of Israel, its number increased relatively much. If I’m not mistaken, Israel today has over 3.5 million inhabitants, but Israeli psychology and inspiration, especially in the field of organization, have made this country stronger from all points of view, from an economic and financial point of view, yes, but also from a military point of view. Its main support has been and is American imperialism without leaving aside other imperialist countries. In addition to Israel, American imperialism, through large oil monopolies, has under its influence Saudi Arabia, the richest country in this area in oil, the Emirates of the Persian Gulf and Iran.
He practically controls the oil fields in all these countries. To preserve all this great wealth, American imperialism is ready to enter the war itself, but before entering the war itself, it enters the war for its own interests. Thus, when he saw that his area of influence in the Middle East could be endangered, he intervened in Israel, which militarily attacked Egypt and Syria several times in a row. These, ostensibly to defeat Israel, why it had occupied some of their lands and expelled the Palestinians from their lands and forced them to live, and still live, as immigrants in other Arab countries, relied on Soviet social-imperialism. This corresponded to the policy of the Soviet social-imperialists, because their real goal was to get their hands on the great oil wealth in the Middle East through Egypt and Syria.
Nasser fell into the trap of the Soviets, preached the complete liquidation of Israel, even entered North Yemen under the pretext of peace. His policy of subservience to the Soviets brought known damage to Egypt and the Egyptian people. Anwar al-Sadati, followed Nasser’s policy, became more closely associated with the Soviet Union and continued threats against Israel. This caused the Soviet Union to get its feet firmly planted in Egypt and reached so far that it thought that there was no one to uproot it from there. Sadat based on the weapons he received from the Soviet Union, played a political maneuver, especially for the future, assessed the Israeli forces in Sinai and attacked them, but without any great success. The Egyptian armies, however, crossed the east bank of the Suez Canal and entered a part of the Sinai that had been occupied by Israel at the time of Nasser.
In this situation, the United States of America intervened and through the Security Council, a ceasefire was established. The exit to the east bank of the Suez Canal, Sadat called a great victory of the Kipur war, as this war was called. But Israel also played its part of the political game, after crossing the west bank of the Suez Canal, accepted the truce, the talks for which took place exactly in this part of the Egyptian land, occupied during this war. After the ceasefire, Israel continues to hold the occupied Egyptian lands of Sinai and other Arab lands, has the Palestinian forces outside its territory at all times, and strikes their bases near the occupied lands. Israel also keeps the Golan of Syria occupied and, at the same time, along with the American imperialists, works to “lower the bloodshed” in this region.
This tactic of his aims to further deepen the division between the Arab countries and with the most important of them, Egypt, to achieve a peace if not permanent, temporary, if not general, at least partial. In this direction, the United States of America has maneuvered and is maneuvering with all means and ways, in support of the Israeli strategy. Egypt is the most populous Arab country. At the head of the Egyptian state today is Anwar el Sadati, an Arab rich man and, as he himself wrote in the book about his memories from the time of the Second World War, he was in the service of Hitler’s Field Marshal Romel. Recently, Sadat went to Jerusalem, where he talked with Begin, the prime minister of Israel. Both agreed to live in “peace” from now on, naturally with some conditions. These conditions benefit Israel, but also the United States of America, which is behind this great anti-Arab maneuver.
Sadat’s gesture, his going to Jerusalem, made other Arab countries “revolt”, call him a traitor to the Arab nation and gather in Tripoli, Libya, to judge his attitude and condemn him. In this meeting, apart from Gaddafi, there was Boumediene of Algeria, Assad of Syria, as well as a representative of Lebanon. Iraq agreed, but I don’t think they sent anyone. At the gathering of Libya, therefore, where they threatened and condemned Sadat, not all Arab countries went. Saudi Arabia, despite not openly declaring it, actually stands behind Sadat and supports him. Even the Emirates of the Persian Gulf support the action of Sadat, who certainly did not do the step he did without the consent of some others, especially the countries I mentioned above.
Thus the state of relations between the Arab countries was even more deeply confused. Currently we see that on one side stand Algeria, Libya, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, on the other, Egypt, behind which stands the Hashemite King of Jordan, Hussein. They also stand, as I said, the king of Saudi Arabia, the sheikhs of the Persian Gulf, that is, the richest people in the Arab world. Tunisia stands in the middle; it is not pronounced either there or there, sometimes it says something for, sometimes something against. Sadat, to oppose the meeting in Tripoli, immediately cut off diplomatic relations with all the countries that participated in this meeting. At the same time, he called in Cairo the meeting of the interested countries of this area, as well as the Americans, the Israelis and the Soviets.
The latter, trying not to go out of the field at all, refused to participate in this meeting, while the Americans accepted, but the Israelis are also ready to be there. Sadat is determined to hold this meeting, with or without other Arab countries. In other words, American imperialism wants and will achieve its goal, to reach a ‘modus vivendi’, even a temporary, partial “peace” between its satellite, Israel, and Egypt. But the United States of America would like, and is working for this, that other Arab countries, especially Syria, participate in this “peace” agreement between Israel and Egypt. They are very interested in this. Does the Soviet Union have a hand in this matter? I think there is. Regardless of the external position, he is interested in deepening the division between the countries of the Arab peoples, so that he can benefit more.
Sadat, enraged by the general deceitful attitude of the Soviet Union, expelled from Egypt all Soviet military and civilian technical advisers and, of his allies, the “people’s democracy” countries, and reduced the personnel of their missions to almost a minimum diplomatic. After that, the Soviet Union also turned the tables and is openly supporting the countries that gathered in Tripoli. With this attitude, he defends his policy in the Middle East, especially the military bases he has in Libya, Syria, etc. The benefits that the Soviet Union has in these countries on the shores of the Mediterranean have a military-strategic character, but in time he thinks to expand them in the economic field, not only in the countries along the Mediterranean, but also in the interior of Africa and Middle East.
So now he is supposedly a sincere and close friend of all the Arab peoples, with the exception of Sadat and those who support him. Currently, therefore, we see that American imperialism has achieved its objectives to some extent, that is, it has consolidated its strategic and economic positions in this area and divided the Arab peoples. The most populous and economically and militarily powerful countries are on his side, while also having on his side Israel, his real cobra in times of war and turmoil. Whereas the Soviet Union tries to maintain those positions that remained, because it lost Egypt. However, the Soviets have not lost all hope. It is right to think and conclude that this is indeed a tragedy for all the Arab peoples, whose countries are washed by the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.
China thinks that these countries and peoples of the “third world”, “the main driving force leading the world and humanity to the proletarian revolution”, will be on its side. What a scandalous theory, when it is known that in most of these countries, feudal kings and big capitalist bourgeois rule, who play with the fate of their people and who are closely connected with one or the other imperialist power! Chinese politics has nothing Marxist-Leninist and life is showing that the “three worlds” theory has no basis, no influence even in these countries, not to mention all the so-called “third world” countries. Not only that, but these situations and these attitudes have put China in an extremely weak and ridiculous position. She cannot and does not know what position to take, to be for Sadat, or against him, to be against Israel, or for, to be for peace, or for the continuation of the war of the Arab peoples and specifically of the Arab people Palestinian, against Israel that has stolen their lands.
China cannot speak out about these problems, and this is natural, because of its inconsistent, baseless, reactionary and ridiculous policy. All the Arab peoples see that China is a “big” power, but that it does not have the strength to interfere at least with its attitudes, in these big problems, which are the toy of two superpowers, but which worry the world. Thus, China, although it does not say it openly, is in favor of Sadat’s agreement with Israel, in favor of sacrificing the freedom and independence of the Palestinian people, who are looking for their homeland.
SATURDAY, MARCH 4, 1978
EVERY COUNTRY HAS THE RIGHT TO DEFEND ITS SOVEREIGNTY
The conflict between Egypt and Cyprus, over the sending of an Egyptian air commando to this country, continues. Egypt has severed relations with Cyprus. Which of these two countries is to blame for this? Of course, Egypt is to blame. I find a moderation in the attitudes of Cyprus and Cypriots and an understanding on their part. They want diplomatic relations to be established between the island of Cyprus and Egypt and a peaceful state to exist. But my opinion is that, despite the moderation in the attitudes of the Cypriots, who have taken many steps for reconciliation with the Egyptian government, this, on its part, does not make any progress in this direction.
There is no doubt about this, that this government is pushed by imperialist powers to keep the conflict burning, which Cyprus did not cause. Cypriots did their duty, fought for the protection of the country’s sovereignty. Why the plane did sent by Sadat, filled with a commando of soldiers, land without permission in Cyprus and forcefully attack a plane, which had two Palestinian “terrorists” inside, who killed the editor of the newspaper “Al Ahram”?
Such an issue could not be resolved and it was impermissible to resolve it in the way that Sadat sought to resolve it. Even, recently, he has declared that he will defend with a weapon, the life of any Egyptian, in the four corners of the world”! How great are the claims of this man! It would be better for him to think and prepare, to liberate the territories occupied by Israel, to think how to help his Palestinian brothers, to regain their silent homeland, than to make such statements that will protect even the last Egyptian person, found in a lost end of the world! Memorie.al
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