By Fadil Paçrami
Memorie.al / What is prison? It is the place where those who have been sentenced to deprivation of liberty are kept, we would say by reading any dictionary. But that is little. Prison and freedom – two opposites. Previously: what is freedom? In short: to be free means to do what you want, to think and act as you wish in the exercise and fulfillment of your freedoms and rights, as a person and as a citizen, but always without harming and violating others. . Again: to think and act. We are talking about democratic freedoms, from those of speech, press, assembly and organization in various parties and associations, ensuring the conditions where ideas, requests and human wills can find expression and concretization, from those of the biological-related plan with the being itself, to those of the social plan, related to the ways of living.
Continues from last issue
And twice guilty violators of the laws, responsible for punishments and illegal actions that have destroyed so many human lives, in addition to the Ministers of the Interior, there are others from the President of the Supreme Court and the Attorney General with their deputies, who instead of being the defenders of the law, as the Constitution mandates, they became the violators of it and of the Constitution itself. Except they can’t get out, their work is criminal. But the strange thing is that there are those who continue to stay where they were and have blocked the re-examination of investigative and judicial files, tarnishing the legal system of the country and furthering the violation of the law. Why does this happen?! This is inconceivable!
-Recently, there is more and more talk about freedom, human rights and democracy. Rather, we need another, fairer relationship between freedom, law and force. It must be known, the latter has ruled – strength. Even today, there are organizations and leaders who tend to hold fast, only by force. Well, the country and the people demand freedom and rights respect for laws and democracy. Developments and people have been waiting for these for a long time; otherwise they have not been given. In a word, it is called more comfortable, to rule by force and fear. Until when?!
Let’s be realistic, until these views, actions and practices, work methods, state bodies, etc., which were discussed above, are not denounced, criticized and condemned openly, the appropriate corrections are not made, the people who continue to be obstacle, they do not become clear and understandable for the masses, nor can there be establishment of freedom, law and democracy. Words and calls not accompanied by deeds are not enough, they do not guarantee them, they do not fix things and they do not convince anyone.
-For centuries it has been fought in our country, it is fought even today for the independence of the country. It has inspired entire generations, outstanding people, its flag rose to the highest peaks during the Anti-Fascist National Liberation War. And straight. But that – independence in fact, is not separated from progress as a whole, from the economic, cultural, and scientific and political-social developments of the country, it is not separation, closure and isolation. A correct understanding of the issue is needed here, both theoretically and in principle, as well as in practice. These or those statements are not enough. Such tendencies – in order to remain speechless, must be left behind an hour or so ago.
Occasional emphasis, from one time to the other, which is observed not only in the press, but also in official speeches, to point out sensational developments everywhere and whenever, apart from others, as a country and in fields of particular, with which all achievements so far are connected, is not appropriate, because the truth is not like that. On the other hand, it also has consequences for moving forward in the future. Therefore, any tendency for one-sided inflation, for self-praise or praise, from anyone else outside, have nothing in common with Albanian independence and originality.
The press shows a kind of reluctance and caution, to measure words and fear, regarding the changes that should be made in this or that field, the methods and practices of the work of the party and the state, the forms of organization and management. , of the legislation; even in concepts for special issues. Yes, the press creates the impression that, besides calls, there are few concrete things, that there are no calls for essential issues, any measures and actions. Why does this happen?
Leaving aside how far the given orientations extend, the old, the routine, the taboos, the bureaucratism, the well-to-do, the incompetent hold back, are against, and are afraid of changes everywhere and to any extent. But moving forward is a denial of what has passed and the introduction of new things to which the future belongs. Always, something dies and something is born, changes are made, this is the law.
– There has been talk for some time, and rightly so, about not using nicknames when debates are held, not politicizing when expressing opinions and not confusing unity with unanimity. Previously, these were not said, so nicknames were given for nothing, it was politicized even for a word of mouth; different opinions were called violations of unity. Now these are denounced, so it shouldn’t happen like that anymore. The mind wants people to feel more confident now, that there should be more debate, brainstorming, searching for new findings in every field, creative discussions.
But in the press, it doesn’t appear, either as a reflection of what should be happening down at the grassroots or even as a brainstorming session on certain issues, barring a few tweets about third-hand, fifth-hand stuff, and repeating yes same things. How is this explained?! On the one hand there is an appeal; on the other hand there is reluctance.
Something stands in the way: people are not freed from that spirit that has ruled for years, they have not gained faith, and they do not believe in what they are told. They are afraid. Understandable: for years you did not dare to express an opinion somewhat different to that of the official, or from those of the presidiums of the meetings, on the contrary to an order, decision and guidance from above, because you suffered badly, as they have suffered People have seen this, they have also drawn conclusions: shut up, whatever you need; or keep iso…! Here are the roots of indifference, silence, unyielding agreement with bosses and official politics. And these stand out more among intellectuals, since it has fallen on them, quite a bit; “rain and hail”.
It is said that now it will not happen like that again. Good. It is said, but here some questions arise: first, how many have given up the previous thoughts, methods and practices, many of those of the party and state bodies, of the presidiums and others. Secondly, the Penal Code (further burdened with articles, for such serious punishments, in about half of which death is foreseen), will remain what it is, with the articles on “agitation and propaganda”, “sabotage”, of state and party activity and others – these undefined notions, on the basis of which they can condemn completely in vain, for a word of mouth?
Thirdly, the infamous super commission of internments, unconstitutional and above the law, which gives sentences without a trial, which has rotted the internments of completely innocent women and children, only because they were families, will continue to exist and operate. prisoners?! Another: what about those who suffered because of those mindsets, with which they acted for a long time, what will be done, will they remain where they are, or will things be put in place?! The right requires the latter, and necessarily. If these are not done, words have no value, they do not convince.
February 9, 1990
From the second letter
I am writing you this letter, this time about some issues from recent developments, which extend to the political field and beyond. Too pretentious, one might say. But, as I have expressed other times, when it comes to the country’s interests, there are no monopolies. Secondly, the truth emerges from the juxtaposition of opposing opinions. In this context, let both the sending of this letter and all that I am writing to you be seen. And to be precise, I have to speak openly. In the letter sent on 9.2.1990, towards the end, I wrote:
“As you will notice, I do not dwell on the issues that were raised in the VIII th and IX th Plenums of the Central Committee… I thought: first, not to discuss and express myself about them, ahead of time; the second, I’m waiting for the results and then…”! Now, after the X th Plenum and the last meeting of the People’s Assembly, I thought it’s time. And I have to carry out this task.
A clarification; Since I am unable to speak, not because I do not appreciate it, on the contrary, but because I do not feel engaged and updated enough, I will leave aside the issues related to the planned and projected changes, to the economic mechanism, around which has started to be talked about recently, I am going directly to those of foreign relations, freedoms and human rights and legislation which, in today’s conditions, without question take on a special importance in the processes for the democratization of the country, for which we are quite late, and for which words are not being spared today.
.. Looking into the past, from the 60s onwards, it turns out that the aim as a strategic plan, in foreign policy, was to stay between two blocs – in the confrontation between them, but also in the balance of created, as a result of this confrontation, where there was a guarantee that neither the West, nor the East, could undertake, (once they could even come to an agreement), to act against Albania. On this basis, the attitude towards this confrontation, as well as towards the two big ones, was built: we loved it and were against the latter, as we were also against any tendency towards stabilization and rapprochement, so we did not participate in Helsinki.
These led to isolation, to closure, and to the lack of contact with the world in all areas, such as political, economic and cultural, to a complete mistrust of others, to hostility and phobia, but also to a slowdown in the pace of development, up to the point, as well as the transition to extreme repressive measures within the country, the narrowing of democracy and the non-implementation of human rights. The truth is this; it must be recognized, how do we express it, that; “we have been and are”, that the closure “has not been and cannot be our line”, etc., etc.
A bit of history. The whole past, as a country and as a nation, in these last five centuries at least (but even before) from the time of Skanderbeg, to the renaissance, until today, speaks that we have collided, between Europeanization and Orientalism, which also stemmed from our geographical position: the first, more progressive, which drew us towards all-round economic, cultural and political developments; the second, more regressive, that held us back. The long Skanderbeg war, the relations with the European countries, as well as the entire activity of our humanists in the following centuries speak for this. The Renaissance period also speaks of the identity of the nation, the independent state and the national culture.
Even the fact that we had three religions, with priority, sometimes of one and sometimes of the other, speak for that. How the efforts of the most prominent people at different times speak for the democratic and progressive developments in the permanent war against obscurantism and despotism, starting from the Byzantine one to the Ottoman and Zogollian ones, to the later centralizing influences, and non-democratic Russo-Slavic. It must be recognized that the influence of the latter (combined with the path of totalitarian socialism and under the conditions of an undeveloped Balkan country), with dictatorial tendencies, was not small when the first steps were taken after liberation, and the cold war deepened. East-West, and any attempt towards Europeanization in culture, etc., was called a sin. Likewise towards the democratization of life.
This has been a tough fight. Now there is talk, as well as action is being taken, about broader ties with Europe, in all areas: cultural, economic, political, etc., as well as with its organizations, as well as for democratic developments, full respect for freedoms and human rights, etc., which will accelerate the processes of de-orientalization of remnants from the past, as well as those of progress, in the proportions of a modern, advanced state. The steps so far are only the beginning, it is necessary to go further.
The war between the two trends, which was talked about above, will continue, but the victory is the first, the second can only bring out obstacles to restrain, which must be avoided, as they have hindered a lot until today. The time demands that the fight against them becomes determined, persistent and argued, engaging very openly, telling the truth about the causes, consequences and future developments…!
The concepts expressed and applied, so far in our country, about freedoms and human rights, are: on the one hand, limited and incomplete; on the other hand, the impression is left that it is gained by chance and more for propaganda, I explain: there is talk about “the human rights of employees”, “about the relationship between the state and the citizen, society and the individual”, about “the protection and the fullest possible expression of personality of our man”, for “citizen emancipated to the highest degree possible, and others like these, but that’s all, is spoken.
Farther still, we are with their implementation. I speak about the true and complete meaning of the notion; “on human rights and freedoms”. It is enough to remember that the prosecutions and punishments for nothing, such as the cases for “agitation and propaganda”, and others without fault, from fundamentally wrong laws, and their arbitrary interpretations, countless exiles and deportations, the lack of any status for political prisoners and their treatment, the existence of a Penal Code, with so many articles of impeachment, severe punishments and absurdities that manage to extend sabotage, to activity in the field of ideas, so much so that in recent times, it was deemed necessary to some changes, but more than corrections, were simply names, without affecting the essence, both in content and in form, as far as I have had the opportunity to get to know them.
Well, in the “Declaration of Human Rights” approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948 (and strongly reiterated at the Helsinki Meeting, in 1975) they are formulated and found correctly expressed, in various international documents and in any foreign encyclopedia…!
But you express them differently, truncate, manipulate and distort them, like the president of the Supreme Court, for a long time, Aranit Çela, in an article entitled; “Protection and development of human rights in the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania”, published in No. 4 of the year 1989, of the magazine “Drejtësia Popullore”, that is to say, they have been applied differently in our country, until today. With a pronounced lack of intelligence and cynicism, which reveal how he thought and acted in practice, he says that great truth, which no one can hide now, limiting and presenting them, differently for differently:
– In the equality of citizens, which includes first of all that before the law of women with men and national equality…?
– The participation of citizens in the government of the country, in particular the right to vote and to be elected, the right to personal insurance or, as it is called; the inviolability of the personnel, of the residence, the secrecy of correspondence, the right to appeal against the actions of state bodies, the right of defense, etc.
– The right to freedom of thought, of the press, of assembly, etc., he continues below, is accompanied in our country, by putting in the hands of employees, the concrete tools for their realization, such as the press, radio, meeting rooms, in work centers, neighborhoods and villages, etc., etc.
How is he not ashamed?! No one knows better than him that even as he presents them, they have not been implemented in life; they have been violated and violated in the most brutal way. The truth, therefore, is different for many issues, including the most essential. And that should be said as it is. Until this is done, no real corrections will be made, there is no guarantee that it will really go the way of establishing and implementing human rights, as they are known and expressed in the “Declaration. ..” of the UN and as requested by the Helsinki Meeting. No one will believe the words thrown for other purposes, such as for putting in place everything that was done wrong before. The risk of recurrence in the future cannot be ruled out.
Let me also add this: At the second meeting of the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council on October 22, 1944, as is known, the “Declaration on the Rights of Citizens” was adopted, a document of importance and value for its time, which should come deepened and expanded, but in fact, it was always forgotten, so much so that even the Albanian Encyclopedic Dictionary does not publish it in full, but only gives parts of it, noting that it did not come out of the framework of democratic transformations , and there is talk of expanding the rights of employees, (so not one) which proves what was said above.
Of course, this is neither forgetfulness nor a simple neglect, but it is related to the well-known truth that the rights and freedoms of citizens did not expand, but on the contrary, were narrowed over time and time and more. Memorie.al
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