1937 – German carmaker Volkswagen is founded. Volkswagen translates as “people’s car” in German. The company’s current international advertising slogan is simply “Volkswagen,” referring to the first meaning of the name. The largest market of this group is in China, which gives 40 percent of all its sales and profits worldwide.
1944 – Rudi Giuliani is born in New York. Giuliani is an American politician, lawyer, and public speaker who served as mayor of New York City 107 from 1994 to 2001. He currently serves as President Donald Trump’s lawyer. Giuliani served as Attorney General of the United States of America from 1981 to 1983.
1961 – Peter Benenson’s The Forgotten Prisoners article is published in several internationally acclaimed newspapers. This will later be thought of as the founding of the human rights organization Amnesty International. Citing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Articles 18 and 19, she announced an “Appeal to Amnesty, 1961” campaign and called for “joint action.”
1975 – 15 West African countries sign the Lagos Treaty, establishing the Economic Community of West African States. Also known as ECOWAS, it is a regional political and economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa. Collectively, these sites cover an area of 2 million km2, and in 2015 had an estimated population of over 350 million.
1987 – A West German pilot, Mathias Rust, 18, evades Soviet air defenses and lands a private jet on Moscow’s Red Square in Russia. Rust, immediately stopped and released on August 3, 1988. Rust said he wanted to create an “imaginary bridge” in the East, and that his flight was intended to reduce tension between the two sides of the Cold War.
1991 – Addis Ababa’s capital falls to the Revolutionary Democratic Front of the Ethiopian People, ending the Derg regime and the Ethiopian Civil War. The Revolutionary Democratic Front of the Ethiopian People was a federal political coalition. The EPRDF consisted of four political parties. After leading the overthrow of the People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it prevailed in Ethiopia from 1991 to 2019.
2001 – Ihsan bej Toptani, national activist and Albanian journalist, dies. Dr. Ihsan Toptani was independent from his political views. During the war in Albania he associated and maintained good relations with British missionaries. When several senior British military missionaries such as William Tillmani, Julian Amary and Peter Kempy were found on Albanian soil, they came to the aid of dr. Ihsani, who stood out with the accompaniment he made mostly to Captain Julian Amery, who writes: Ihsani was a landowner and the head of one of the largest families in central Albania. He had always stayed away from politics but personally he had unreserved sympathy for the English and had faced great dangers to save the British officers, who had remained ill or wounded after the punitive operations of 1943. To us he was an adviser to wise and impartial and more than once he had served as a mediator to thwart the plans of the Germans to strengthen the “collaborationist” regime in Tirana “. He died on 28 May 2001, at the age of 93, and was buried on 7 June 2001 in South London Crematorium.
2003 – Ilya Prigogine dies at the age of 86. Prigogine, was a physicist and chemist, awarded the Nobel Prize in 1977. He noted his work on distribution structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. In summary, Ilya Prigogine found that importing and distributing energy to chemical systems can result in the emergence of new structures.