1880 – Born in Elbasan, Aleksandër Xhuvani was a teacher, textologist, linguist, clerk and minister of the Albanian state. For his work in the field of education he was honored with the title of Teacher of the People. Aleksandër Xhuvani gave a valuable contribution in the establishment and construction of Albanian school didactics and pedagogy. Didactics, according to him, is “a science and an art; it is a science in terms of the knowledge it gives to students, it is an art in terms of using and applying the things learned.” It dealt with the treatment of basic issues of teaching and school, such as: teaching content, didactic principles, teacher personality, school premises, etc. With his texts, Didactics and Education, Didactics, etc., he tried to bring the Albanian school out of the backwardness and chaos of different currents and pedagogical influences and to raise it on a unique and advanced didactic basis, supporting it in the achievements of European didactics. In this plan, according to Xhuvani, the teacher has an important role, his vocation “because the art of education, which is practiced by the teacher, is the highest and noblest of the arts; …” Also, the views of his for various issues of preschool pedagogy, adult education (andragogy), family pedagogy. Xhuvani, like other renaissances, since he was in Egypt, strongly emphasized the necessity for the educational and cultural upliftment of the Albanian woman, whom he considered a very important national and educational (pedagogical) factor. “The educational level of the Albanian woman,” he writes, “is the foundation of social education, the foundation of our progress as a state and as a nation.”
1903 – The Hay-Herran Treaty, granting the United States the right to build the Panama Canal, is ratified by the US Senate. The Columbia Senate would later reject the treaty. The United States government was unwilling to renegotiate the treaty with Colombia or change the amounts involved. This sparked an uprising in Panama that led to its independence and the final construction of the Panama Canal.
1939 – Born in Little Eminas, Agim Faja was an illustrator, designer, graphic designer and book author. Agim Faja is one of the painters of Socialist Realism who started his creativity in the mid-60s of the XX century. His main topic was agriculture and village life. He lived and created in the small town of Shijak, also emerging as a very important illustrator especially for children’s magazines. Agim Faja was the illustrator painter of the children’s magazine “Fatosi”. He has illustrated over a hundred titles of various publications mainly for children including “Primer”, “Arithmetic” and “Singing”. 1967 Biennial of Egypt. The painting “Summer of 1965” was exhibited. 1968 Fine Arts Exhibition in PR China and Vietnam. The painting “Summer of 1965” was exhibited. 1969 Fine Arts Exhibition in PR China. The painting “Before the flight” and the landscape “Aircraft overhaul” were exhibited. 1972 Fine arts exhibition in Graz, Austria. The painting “In the manza of Manza” was exhibited. 1977 Fine arts exhibition in the Algerian city of Algiers. The painting “With the forehead to freedom” (Gjikë Kuqali) was exhibited. 1978 Exhibition of fine arts in Yugoslavia, in the cities of Prizren, Pristina and Belgrade. The painting “Albania oh my mother” (Naim Frashëri) was exhibited. In 1987 he was awarded the title “Merited Painter”, while in 1996 the then president Sali Berisha gave him the title “Torch of Democracy” and in 1999 he was proclaimed “Honorary Citizen” of the city of Shijak. He passed away on June 27, 2017.
1942 – Orvan Hess and John Bumstead become the first in the United States to successfully treat a patient, Anne Miller, using penicillin. Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. People started using it to treat infections in 1942. There are some penicillins that are effective against the extra bacteria. These include antistaphylococcal penicillins, aminopenicillins, and antipseudomonal penicillins.
1958 – Born in Monaco, Albert II. Alberti is, is the royal monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the royal house of Grimaldi. He is the son of Prince Rainier III and Grace, Princess of Monaco, formerly Grace Kelly, the American actress. Prince Albert’s sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover and Princess Stephanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock.
1961 – The faulty USAF Broken Arrow Nuclear Weapons Network held on a B-52 plane crashes near the city of Yuba. The crew shifted as the aircraft exploded and four nuclear weapons were fired. Numerous weapons safety interconnections prevented a nuclear explosion and the release of radioactive material onto the ground. While one firefighter was killed and several others injured in a road accident en route to the scene of the accident.
1978 – Israeli Defense Forces attack and invade southern Lebanon in Operation Lithuania. The conflict resulted in the deaths of 1,100-2,000 Lebanese and Palestinians, 20 Israelis, internal displacement of 100,000 to 250,000 people in Lebanon, and PLO forces withdrew north of the Litani River. It led to the creation of the UNIFIL peacekeeping force and a nearly complete withdrawal of Israel.
1982 – The South African government bombs the headquarters of the African National Congress in London. The offices of the African National Congress in London were destroyed by a 12kg bomb that exploded against the back wall at 9 am. General Johann Coetzee, the former head of South African security police and eight other police officers, admitted the attack at an amnesty hearing of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in September 1998.
2018 – Died at the age of 76, Stephen Hawking. Hawking, was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Center for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death. He was a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009. In 1963, Hawking was diagnosed with a form of onset and progression of motor neuron disease that gradually paralyzed him over the decades.