1922 – Born in Istanbul, Cornelius Castoriadis. Castoriadis, was a philosopher, Greek-French, social critic, economist, psychoanalyst, author of The Imaginary Institution of Society and co-founder of the Barbarian Socialist group. His writings on autonomy and social institutions have been influential in both academic and activist circles. He is considered one of the best Greek sociologists of modern times.
1955 – Died at age 73, Alexander Fleming. Fleming, was a Scottish biologist, physician, and pharmacologist. His most popular discoveries are lysozyme enzyme in 1923 and the world’s first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) from Penicillium in 1928. For which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.
1963 – Azem Hajdari was born in Tropoja, the leader of the student movement 1990-91 that led to the fall of the communist regime in Albania. In 1995, he graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Tirana. He later became a politician of the Democratic Party of Albania. It symbolizes the beginning of the democratic period in Albania. He was a member of the Albanian Parliament and chairman of the Parliamentary Committee on Defense. On October 2, “1998”, Hajdari was posthumously honored with the title “Honorary Citizen of Tirana”, the President of Albania, Alfred Moisiu, in 2002 decorated Azem Hajdari with the Order “Honor of the Nation” and in 2007 was decorated with the Decoration “Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu “by President Bamir Topi. A monument was erected in honor of Hajdari and Besim Çera at the place where they were killed.
1977 – Hanafit siege occurs. More than 130 hostages held in Washington, D.C. Hanafi Muslims have been released after ambassadors from three Islamic nations join in the negotiations. The attackers were led by Hamas Abdul Khaalis, who wanted to draw attention to the murder of his family in 1973. They killed the radio journalist Maurice Williams. After 39 hours, the terrorists surrendered and all hostages were released.
1981 – Hundreds of Kosovo Albanian students protest at the University of Pristina in Kosovo, then part of Yugoslavia, to give their republic more political rights. The protests then became a nationwide movement. Demonstrations for human rights and freedoms in Kosovo were brutally suppressed by Yugoslav military and police forces.
1983 – Pakistan successfully develops a cold test of a nuclear weapon. This nuclear test was called Project 706. At the same time, Pakistani nuclear technology scientists and engineers gained expertise in using reactor-grade plutonium and successfully produced weapons-grade plutonium from the early 1980s.
1990 – Lithuania declares independence from the Soviet Union. This was a declaration of independence from Lithuania adopted on 11 March 1990, signed by all members of the Council of the Republic of Lithuania led by Sajudis. The act emphasized the restoration and legal continuation of Lithuania’s warring period, which was occupied by the USSR and lost its independence in June 1940.
2004 – Explosion at central train station occurs in the Spanish capital Madrid. As a result of this terrorist act, nearly 200 people were killed and over 500 were injured. The bombings constituted the deadliest terrorist attack carried out in the history of Spain and the deadliest in Europe since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 on Lockerbie, Scotland. This attack was taken over by Al Qaeda.