1839 – Born in the village of Frashër in the Vilajet of Ioannina, Abdyl Frashëri is an Albanian MP in the Ottoman Majlis, one of the main leaders of the Albanian League of Prizren. As chairman of the Albanian Committee of Ioannina, which was formed the same year, he drafted the project of declaring Albania’s independence through the anti-Ottoman liberation uprising. But his hopes that the idea of the Albanian state would be supported by the rivals of the Russian Empire, who did not want its supremacy in the Balkan Peninsula, did not materialize. Talks with Greek representatives in July and December 1877 on an Albanian-Greek political and military alliance against the Ottoman Empire also failed after Athens did not accept the idea of an Independent Albania within its ethnic borders. He never separated the fight for the protection of the territorial integrity of the homeland from the fight for the autonomy of Albania. He participated in almost all the main assemblies that were organized by the General Council of the Albanian League or by its inter-provincial committees. Everywhere he led the autonomist wing of the movement. In the Constituent Assembly of the League of Prizren he was elected chairman of its foreign affairs commission.
1850 – Born in the village of Frashër in the Vilayet of Ioannina, Sami bej Frashëri, functionary and intellectual of the Ottoman Empire as well as a journalist, playwright and the basic ideologist of the National Renaissance, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim. Sami Frashëri directed the first magazines in the Albanian language “Drita” and then “Dituria” where he wrote a large number of articles. Sami Frashëri also compiled a dictionary of the Albanian language which remained unpublished. He also left in manuscript a collection of Albanian folk songs. Sami Frashëri also defended the Albanian issue in the various press bodies he headed, especially in the Turkish newspaper “Terxhuman-i Shark”. Sami Frashëri is the author of 57 works in Albanian, Turkish and Arabic, including magazines and newspapers that he directed by publishing them himself. Sami Frashëri treats the Albanian issue and the history of the Albanian people in his works in the Turkish language and especially in the articles published in the press of the time, as well as in the literary works with motifs from the Albanian life. As a great scholar, Sami Frashëri gave his valuable contribution in several fields of science where he distinguished himself as a representative of advanced materialist thought, not only for Albania, but also for the countries of the East. He is the author of the normative dictionary of the Turkish language which retains its great value even today. Sami Frashëri’s major work in Turkish is his Encyclopedia “Kamus-ul alâm” (1900) in 6 volumes, where Samiu gives a prominent place to the Albanian world, important figures that the Albanian people have produced during its history. In Sami’s encyclopedia, there are announcements for state institutions, educational, religious, etc., as well as geographical data not only for the most important cities and administrative centers of Albania, but also for the most famous villages. As a writer, Sami Frashëri wrote dramas and novels in Turkish. The most important narrative work Sami Frashëri “Besa”, has taken the subject from Albanian life. It appeared at the Imperial Theater in Istanbul in 1874, a year before it was published. For the popularization of scientific knowledge, I write several books and brochures, which he summarized in the “Pocket Library”, compiled various texts, published anthologies with selected pieces of world and mainly oriental literature, he left in manuscript 11 works mainly from the field of linguistics and literature. Sami Frashëri was also a talented journalist. In the creative work of Sami Frashëri an important place is occupied by translations, mainly those from French. He excelled in his broad culture in many fields. His personal library had 20,000 volumes. For his patriotic activity and for the progressive spirit that pervades his works, the High Gate pursued and persecuted Sami Frashëri, exiling and isolating him. In recent years he has been barred from leaving the house. The prominent patriot died in Istanbul.
1879 – Napoleon Eugene, of the last Bonaparte dynasty, is killed in the Anglo-Zulu War. He was the son of the Emperor of France, Napoleon III. His death in the conflict between the British and the Zulu tribe of Africa sent shock waves across Europe as he was the last serious dynastic hope for the restoration of the Bonaparte House on the throne of France.
1913 – The Treaty of the Greco-Serbian Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War. The treaty was signed in Thessaloniki after the First Balkan War when both countries wanted to preserve their benefits in Macedonia from Bulgarian expansionism. A good part of the Albanian territories in Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Greece was severely affected by the decisions of this treaty.
1936 – Bekim Fehmiu, one of the greatest Albanian artists, was born in Sarajevo. He became famous with the film “Feather Collectors” in 1966. By that time, he had studied and had become known by many film houses around the world. He is the first Albanian film and theater actor to have acted successfully in films and scenes throughout the former Yugoslavia. He has been one of the personalities who has left his mark on Balkan cinematography, but above all, he is great for his artistic contribution to world cinematography. From 1987, when he demonstratively abandoned Anete Playel’s play “Madame Kolontine”, starring Lenin and Stalin at the Yugoslav Drama Theater, he said goodbye to artistic activity in Yugoslavia. After some time, he made the decision to end his career in world artistic activities. Bekim Fehmiu’s memoir, “Splendor and Fear”, was recently published in Yugoslavia, describing the period from his birth in Sarajevo, including everything until 1955, when he was admitted to the Drama Theater. Prishtina.
1937 – Born in Memphis, Morgan Freeman. Freeman is an American actor and film narrator. Freeman won an Academy Award in 2005 for Best Supporting Actor with Million Dollar Baby and has received Oscar nominations for his performances on Street Smart, Driving Miss Daisy, The Shawshank Redemption, and Invictus. He has also won a Golden Globe Award and a Guild Guild Award Screen Actors.
1961 – The Canadian Commercial Bank and the Imperial Bank of Canada merged to form the Imperial Canadian Commercial Bank, the largest banking union in Canadian history. The bank conducts international operations in the United States, the Caribbean, Asia, and the United Kingdom. CIBC serves more than 12 million customers and has over 40,000 employees. The company ranks 172nd in the Forbes Global rankings.
1988 – The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty enters into force. This treaty was signed between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the elimination of their medium-range and short-range missiles. The INF treaty banned all ground-based ballistic missiles of the two nations, cruise missiles, and short-range missiles.
2001 – The Royal Nepalese Massacre takes place, where the Crown Prince Dipendra shoots and kills several members of his family, including his father and mother. The bird fell into a coma after firing on itself. He died in hospital three days after the massacre, unable to regain consciousness. This is considered one of the most serious massacres that have ever hit the country.
2008 – An explosion at the rear of the Universal Studio causes a fire, destroying the King Kong Encounter traction and a large cassette archive. These tapes were used for music and movies, the full extent of which was not revealed until 2019. The fire was extinguished after 12 hours but had caused one of the greatest damages in terms of the archive of a film.