1842 – Born in the Kala neighborhood in Berat Baba Dudë Karbunara was an Albanian teacher and politician, signer of the Declaration of Independence of Albania. After finishing his studies, he returned to Berat in 1863. Although educated for the time, the Turks did not accept him in the administration, so he provided the income for the family through trade, which he developed with his brothers and cousins settled in Vlora and emigrated. He married and became the father of three daughters. His pronounced Albanianism caught the eye of the Turks, who in 1895 burned down his house in Berat. The period after Independence that passed was very difficult for Baba Duda. The patriotic teacher, representative of Berat in the Assembly of Vlora in old age was cruelly tortured by the mercenaries of Esat Toptan. In addition to destroying his property in 1915, when Haxhi Qamil’s rebels entered Berat, they captured him, dragged him into the city, and beat him with sticks. From this violence, Baba Duda was in serious health condition until the end of his life. He passed away on December 17, 1917, at the age of 75.
1885 – Born in Shkodra, Hilë Mosi was an activist and propagandist of the national cause, a figure in journalism and Albanian politics after independence. In 1920 he was senator pref. of Shkodra in the Senate of the Chamber of the National Council of Albania and in the years 1921-1924 was elected for two consecutive legislatures deputy of the same prefecture. He was the delegate and representative of Albania in the League of Nations, in Geneva. On March 3, 1921 he was elected secretary of the National Council, in 1921-1922 and again in May 1924 he was appointed prefect in Korça. On August 3, 1923 he delivered the mortuary speech on the occasion of the death of the patriot Pandeli Cale. With the Triumph of Legality he emigrated abroad, but in August 1925 he was part of the amnestied by the President of the Republic Ahmet Zogu. Upon his return, he was appointed prefect in Korça, where he remained until the end of 1926. At the beginning of 1927, he was appointed inspector of the Presidency of the Republic, but by the decision of the President of the Republic, on January 16, 1927, and by Decision of the Council of Ministers, on January 27, 1927, turns out to have been appointed “Inspector General of Administration”, handing over the task of mayor Zef Kadare, transferred from Berat to Korca. As soon as he came to this position, Hila, realized the transfer of the Korça Police Commissioner, his friend, Zef Mirdita, to the position of “Secretary of the Administration Inspectorate”. After this task, on October 24, 1927, he was appointed Minister of World Affairs and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, where he remained until November 16, 1927, replaced by Salih Vuititërni. That fall the tragedy of the death of his son, Mir. The prefect of Korça returned until March 6, 1930, when the government of Pandeli Evangeli gave him the post of Minister of Education and Deputy Minister of World Affairs. During that time he met Petro Marko who appoints him a teacher in Dhërmi.
1915 – The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres. The Second Battle of Ypres was the first mass use by Germany of poison gas on the Western Front. It also marked the first time that a previous colonial force (the First Canadian Division) had defeated a European power (the German Empire) in Europe.
1918 – Born in Likmetaj of the Former Ibrahim Shaban Likmetaj Kodra, was an Albanian painter of international fame. Kodra is considered the most important Albanian painter known internationally. His life in Tirana in the dormitory of the school “Naim Frashëri”, is interrupted when 20 years old (1938) leaves Albania forever with a scholarship from the royal court to the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome. He leaves Rome and ends up in Milan, at the Brera Academy of Fine Arts. He exhibits in Rome, Milan, Venice, Paris, Belgrade, New York. In 1948, Ibrahim Kodra became friends with Pablo Picasso, on this very topic at the “International Conference for the Peace of Rome”, in which the two together they conducted an in-depth artistic research, you were a writer. Ibrahim Kodra has left behind about 6 thousand works, distributed by private museums, collectors and only 2 thousand of them are registered and documented. In Kodra’s artistic research, Pablo Picasso’s Cubism will have a great influence, especially after their friendship in Rome in 1948, to the point that the same Spanish newspapers talking about Picasso portrayed Kodra as “the last post-Cubist in Europe” as Picasso.
1930 – The United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States sign the Treaty of London, which regulates naval warfare and restricts the construction of warships. Ratifications were exchanged in London on October 27, 1930, and the treaty entered into force on the same day. This Treaty was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on 6 February 1931.
1937 – Jack Nicholson is born in New Jersey. Nicholson, is an American actor and director, whose career spanned more than 60 years. He is known for playing a wide range of supporting roles, including comedy, romance, and dark comic portraits of anti-heroes and evil characters. Some of his films are, The Shinning, Batman, Wolf, The Departed, A Few Goodmen, etc.
1948 – During the Arab-Israeli War, Haifa, Israel’s largest port, is taken over by Arab forces. The Battle of Haifa, also known as Operation Haganah, was a major event in the final stages of the Palestinian civil war that led to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The objective of the operation was to capture Haifa’s Arab neighborhoods. Hundreds of Israeli and Arab troops were killed in the battle.
1977 – Optical fiber is first used for direct telephone communication. Optical fibers are most often used as a means of transmitting light between two ends of a fiber and to find widespread use in fiber optic communications. They allow transmission over longer distances and in bandwidth (data rates) than electric cables.
1983 – German magazine Stern claims that “Hitler’s Diaries” were found in rubbish in East Germany. The diaries were later discovered to be counterfeit. Hitler’s diaries were a 60-volume series of magazines properly written by Adolf Hitler, but falsified by Konrad Kujau in 1981-83. Diaries were purchased in 1983 for 10 million marks by the German news magazine Stern.
1994 – Richard Nixon dies at the age of 81. Nixon, was the 37th president of the United States, who served from 1969 to 1974. After five years at the White House he signed the end of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, friendship with the USSR and China, and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. Nixon became the only president to resign.
2016 – The Paris Agreement is officially signed, an agreement to help fight global warming. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 states at the 21st Conference of UNFCCC Parties in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. The only states that have not signed these agreements, are Turkey and Iran.