1918 – Fanny Kaplan shoots and seriously injures Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, who, along with the assassination of senior Bolshevik official Moisei Uritsky days ago, promotes the Red Terror decree. Kaplan, would be sentenced to death, and executed by firing squad, just a week later. The red terror campaign would be applied by Cheka.
1928 – Wilhelm Wien dies at the age of 64. Wien, was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to derive Wien’s law of displacement, which calculates the emission of a black body at any temperature from emission to any reference temperature. He received the Nobel Prize in 1911.
1945 – The Allied Control Council, which governs Germany after World War II, begins to exist. Members were the USSR, the United Kingdom, the USA and France. The organization was based in Berlin-Schöneberg. This council was the only sovereign legal authority for Germany as a whole, replacing the civilian government of Nazi Germany.
1963 – The Moscow-Washington telephone line between US and Soviet leaders enters operation. Although popularly known as the “red telephone”, the telephone line was never such a line, and no red telephone was used. The first application used Teletype equipment, and moved to fax machines in 1986.
1974 – A Belgrade-Dortmund high-speed train derails at Zagreb’s main train station, killing 153 passengers. This was the worst rail accident in the country’s history to date and remains one of the worst in European history. Some of the dead were not identified.
1984 – Discovery spacecraft begins its first voyage. Discovery became the third operational orbit to enter service, preceded by Columbia and Challenger. In over 27 years of service it launched and landed a full 40 times, collecting more material and performing space flights than any other spacecraft to date.
1989 – Born in New York, Bebe Rexha. Rexha is an American singer and songwriter of Albanian origin. She has become famous for her participation in the hit songs of “Take Me Home” by Cash Cash and “Hey Mama” by David Guetta, also she is the lead vocalist of the American band Black Cards created by Pete Wentz.
1995 – NATO launches Operation Deliberate Forces against Bosnian Serb forces. The operation was carried out, involving 400 aircraft and 5,000 personnel from 15 nations. Commanded by Admiral Leighton Ë. Smith Jr., the campaign hit 338 Bosnian Serb targets, many of which were destroyed. In all, 1,026 bombs were dropped during the operation
2005 – Jakup Mato, teacher, academic, critic and Albanian esthete dies. Prof. Dr. Jakup Mato has performed tasks related to the arts. Among others he was director of the Higher Institute of Arts (today: Academy of Arts). From 1991 to 1993 and from 1997 to 1998 director of the Center for the Study of Arts of the Academy of Sciences. For many years he has given aesthetics lectures at the University of Tirana and the Higher Institute of Arts. Member of the board of the Encyclopedia of Albanian Art. Scientific secretary of the art and culture editorial office of the Albanian Encyclopedic Dictionary. Since the sixties he has published a large number of scientific and critical articles and has delivered and published a series of papers on education, literature and the arts.
2014 – Shaban Demiraj, well-known Albanian linguist, albanologist and academic, dies. He was the president of the Albanian Academy of Sciences during 1993-1997. In 1954 he started working as a lecturer at the Higher Pedagogical Institute and then at the Faculty of History and Philology of the University of Tirana, where he served until 1990, when he graduated. in retirement. Thus, he works as a teacher, professor and scientist for over 60 years, which is a pleasant record in itself. He is one of the lecturers who has given lectures on a significant number of Albanian and Albanological subjects, such as the morphology of today’s Albanian language, the historical grammar of the Albanian language, the history of the Albanian written language (XVII-XIX centuries), as also a special course on Balkan linguistics. For these subjects he compiled the relevant textbooks, which were published as separate dispensations and books, with which the Universities of Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, etc. work even today. He headed with scientific and administrative skills for 27 years the chair of Albanian language at the Faculty of History and Philology (1962-1989). Scientifically prepared, with a strict and demanding character, first of all towards oneself and then towards others, students and colleagues, with impeccable honesty, always humane. In the years 1962-1966 he was deputy dean of the Faculty of History and Philology of the University of Tirana. He will remain in the history of the Faculty of History and Philology and the University of Tirana as a leader who was distinguished for his unstinting work and high quality. A whole life full of study, research, long-lasting, scientific scientific creativity. Because he is like that, he was elected a member of the organizing committee and a delegate of the Spelling Congress (1972), he was given the high titles of Professor (1972), Teacher of the People (1977), Honored Professor 1990, member of the Academy of Sciences of Albania (1989), its chairman (1993-1997), external member of the Kosovo Academy of Sciences and Arts (1996), member of the Central European Academy of Sciences and Arts (1997), honorary member of the Diplomatic Academy of London ( 2000), Vice President of AIESEE (International Association for Southeast European Studies (1994-1998). Laureate of two Republic Awards, second class (1979) and first class (1989). Decorated with the Order of the Grand Master of Labor (2000 He is an Honorary Citizen of Vlora (2001).