1912 – Spain declares a protectorate off the north coast of Morocco. The treaty between France and Spain concerning Morocco was signed on 27 November 1912 by the French and Spanish heads of state. In this treaty, a Spanish zone of influence was de jure established in northern and southern Morocco, while France was still considered a defensive power as it was the only occupying power to sign the Treaty of Fez. The northern part would become the area of the Spanish protectorate in Morocco with its capital in Tetuan, while the southern part was ruled by El Aiun.
1917 – Baba Dudë Karbunara dies. After graduating, he returned to Berat in 1863. Although educated for the time, the Turks did not accept him into the administration, so he provided for his family through trade, which he developed with his brothers and cousins settled in Vlora and emigration. He married and became the father of three daughters. During those years, Naim Frashëri lived in Berat for 2 years and then, in 1885, Kostandin Kristoforidhi and Hasan Tahsini came with the mission of establishing schools in the Albanian language. Those were the years when the Albanian language was not allowed to be learned from mosques and churches, while revolts were boiling in conversations, in every shop and family. Baba Duda started teaching Albanian in church, but this was forbidden to him, while his pronounced Albanianism fell in the eyes of the Turks. When the people of Berat opened a branch for the Albanian League of Prizren, they elected him a member of the committee. Thus, together with learning Albanian, his political path for the national cause began. On July 23, 1912, the Assembly of Sinja convened with representatives of the insurgent groups of the South, among them Baba Duda. The Sinja Memorandum aimed at the independence of Albania. The Assembly of Vlora came in this patriotic spirit. The people of Berat, in evaluation of the work of the Albanian teacher, elected the 72-year-old delegate Jorgji Karbunara as a delegate to the Assembly of Vlora on November 28, 1912, where he signed the Declaration of Independence of Albania with the initials J. Karbunara. The Assembly also elected him a member of the “Elders”. The period after Independence that passed was very difficult for Baba Duda. The patriotic teacher, representative of Berat in the Assembly of Vlora in old age was cruelly tortured by the mercenaries of Esat Toptan. In addition to destroying his property in 1915, when Haxhi Qamil’s rebels entered Berat, they captured him, dragged him into the city and beat him with sticks. From this violence, Baba Duda was in serious health condition until the end of his life.
1940 – Born in San Francisco, Bruce Lee. Lee, actor, director, karateka, martial arts instructor and philosopher. He was the founder of Jeet Kune Do, a hybrid martial arts philosophy. These serve as drawings from various martial arts disciplines, often dealing with paving the way for modern mixed martial arts (MMA). Lee is regarded by commentators, critics, the media, and martial arts instructors as the most influential karateka of all time.
1945 – CARE (Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) is founded. Also known as American Shipping Company to Europe, CARE is a large international humanitarian agency that provides projects for emergency assistance and long-term international development. It is also one of the largest and oldest humanitarian aid organizations focused on combating global poverty. Its founders are Arthur Ringland, Wallace Campbell, and Lincoln Clark.
1978 – The Kurdistan Workers’ Party is founded in the city of Urfa in Turkey. This party is a Kurdish militant and political organization based in Turkey and Iraq, widely defined as a terrorist group. Since 1984, the PKK has been involved in an armed conflict with the Turkish state (with ceasefires in 1999-2004 and 2013–2015), with the initial goal of achieving an independent Kurdish state. Its most famous leader is Abdullah Ocalan, who is currently imprisoned in Turkey.
1984 – Under the Brussels Agreement signed between the governments of the United Kingdom and Spain, official London agrees to begin discussions with Spain on Gibraltar, including sovereignty. The deal was criticized by Gibraltarian politicians for limiting Gibraltarians’ participation in determining their future. This 15 km strait has always served as an “apple of discord” between the British and the Spaniards. Today, Gibraltar is the territory of the British Commonwealth.
1999 – In New Zealand, the center-left party takes control of the government led by its leader, Helen Clark. Clark, became the first elected Prime Minister in the history of New Zealand. She was also the Administrator of the United Nations Development Program from 2009 to 2017. New Zealand is also the first country in the world to allow women to participate in the active political life of the country. During Clark’s rule, official Wellington sent troops to Afghanistan and Iraq.
2013 – Died in Rio de Janeiro, aged 88, Nilton Santos. Santos, was a Brazilian footballer who mainly played as a winger. Internationally, he was the Brazilian national team player who won the World Cup in 1958 and 1962. Recognized as one of the greatest defenders in the history of the game, Nílton Santos is a member of the 20th Century World Team, and was named by Pelé one of the 125 best footballers of life at a FIFA Awards ceremony in 2004.