1908 – The Congress of Manastir was held, or the Congress of the Alphabet, was an academic conference in the city of Manastir, between November 14 – November 22, 1908, for the standardization of the alphabet of the Albanian language. November 22 is already a day of remembrance in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia and in the Albanian Diaspora, known as Alphabet Day. Prior to the congress, the Albanian language was represented by six or more alphabets, not counting the sub-variants. The congress was held by the “Union” society in the house of Fehim Zavalani, where the society’s headquarters was. The participants in the congress were distinguished figures of the Albanian cultural and political life. 50 delegates were invited, representatives of twenty-three cities inhabited by Albanians, cultural and patriotic societies, thirty-two of whom had the right to vote and eighteen observers. Among the most prominent delegates were Gjergj Fishta, Mid’hat Frashëri, Sotir Peci, Ndre Mjeda, Shahin Kolonja, Bajo Topulli, Parashqevi Qiriazi, Fehim Zavalani. The other delegate from the Zavalani family was Izet Zavalani, a representative of Florina. The owner of the house, Fehim Zavalani, gave the introductory speech.
1954 – Born in Alabama, Condoleezza Rice. Rice is an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th Secretary of the United States, being the second person to hold that position in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first female African-American Secretary of State, as well as the second African-American Secretary of State (after Colin Powell), and the second female Secretary of State (after Madeleine Albright). Rice was President Bush’s National Security Adviser during his first term.
1957 – In the Tioga area on the outskirts of New York, US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) forces arrest many of the leaders of the Italian-American Mafia Cosa Nostra. They had gathered there to hold a meeting also known as the “Meeting at Apalachin”. This meeting was organized by Joseph Barbera and Albert Anastasia, two of the largest exponents of the criminal world in the US. Many of the mobsters who were arrested, in those moments were trying to flee the country quickly. The number of arrested reached 100.
1967 – American scientist and physicist Theodore Maiman receives the patent for the invention of his ruby laser system, the world’s first laser. A ruby laser is a solid-state laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium. The laser was successfully discharged on May 16, 1960. At a press conference on July 7, 1960 in Manhattan, Maiman and his employer, the Hughes Aircraft Company, announced the invention of the laser worldwide. While the invention patent was granted 7 years later.
1969 – NASA launches Apollo 12, the second spacecraft to explore the surface of the Moon. Apollo 12 was the sixth crew flight on the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. Launched on November 14, 1969, from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, four months after Apollo 11. Commander Charles “Pete” Conrad and Apollo Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean performed just over a day and seven hours of activity. on the surface of the Moon.
1973 – The Polytechnic Uprising begins in Athens. This was a massive popular demonstration against the Greek military junta of 1967-74. The uprising began on November 14, 1973, and escalated into an open anti-junta revolt. It ended in bloodshed in the early morning of November 17 after a series of events that began when a tank crashed through the gates of the Polytechnic. As a result of these protests, about 40 citizens would be left dead, and hundreds more would be injured.
1982 – Lech Walesa, leader of Poland’s Solidarnost movement, is released after a year in exile near the Soviet border. Walesa and many other Solidarity leaders and activists were arrested. he was imprisoned for 12 months until 14 November 1982 in Chylice, Otëock and Arłamóë, eastern towns near the Soviet border. This deportation near the Soviet border was carried out due to its strict supervision not only by the Polish authorities, but also by the Russian ones.
1992 – Ernst Happel, the symbol of Austrian football, dies at the age of 66. Happel, was an Austrian footballer and coach. He is regarded as one of the most successful managers ever, having also won league and country cup titles in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and Austria. Happel, won the European Cup twice, the first in 1970 and the second in 1983. He was the first of five managers to win the European Cup with two clubs, Carlo Ancelotti, Ottmar Hitzfeld, José Mourinho and Jupp Heynckes were the successors.
2001 – The Northern Alliance (US)’s military forces take control of the Afghan capital, Kabul, after fierce fighting. The Taliban troops, who until that moment had ruled the capital, withdrew. Thus, was formed the new pro-Western government led by Hamid Karzai. The war-torn city began to see positive development as many displaced Afghans returned to the country. The city’s population grew from about 500,000 in 2001 to over the last 3 million years.