1918 – Allied forces occupy Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The capital of the Turkish Empire, was occupied by British, French and Italian forces. This occupation took place in accordance with the Mudro Armistice, which ended Ottoman participation in the First World War. The first French troops entered the city on 12 November 1918, followed by British troops which entered, the next day. Italian troops landed in Galata on February 7, 1919. 30,000 British soldiers, 20,000 French, 4,000 Italians, and a minority of Greeks took part in the invasion.
1955 – Famous Hollywood actress Whoopi Goldberg is born in New York, USA. Goldberg, is an American actress, comedian, author and a television show-oman. She has been nominated for 13 Emmy Awards and is one of the few comedians to have won an Emmy Award, a Grammy Award, an Academy Award, and a Tony Award (EGOT). She is also the second woman from the African-American community to win an Oscar for acting. Some of her films are, Ghosts, Sister Act, Boys on the Side, and Girl Interrupted.
1974 – Vittorio De Sica dies at the age of 73 in Seine, France. De Sica, was an Italian director and actor, a leading figure of the neorealist movement. Four of the films he directed won Academy Awards. Bicycle Thieves, Yesterday, Today and Tomorroë and Il giardino dei Finzi Contini. Also, a great success from the critics was the film Sciuscia (the first foreign film to be recognized by the Academy of Painting, Art, and Science. Bicycle Thieves, was cited by Turner Classic Movies as one of the 15 most influential films in history of cinema.
1985 – Nevado del Ruiz volcano erupts and melts a glacier, causing a volcanic eruption. As a result of this explosion, the city of Armero, in Colombia, was buried under the lava, killing approximately 23,000 people. This natural disaster would be considered one of the most tragic days not only in the state of Colombia but throughout the Latin American continent. During this period in this city, lived about 35,000 people. Colombia is one of the countries most endangered by volcanic eruptions.
1994 – A popular referendum in Sweden causes the country to join the European Union. Voter turnout was 83.3 percent and the result were 52.3 percent in favor, and 46.8 percent against. Today, Sweden is one of the richest and most economically developed countries in the European Union. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy, with legislative power given to it by the 350-member Riksdag Parliament. It is also one of the countries that contributes the most financially to the coffers of Europe.
2015 – A series of terrorist attacks take place in the French capital Paris. Of these coordinated attacks, including multiple shootings, explosions and a hostage crisis in zones 10 and 11, 130 people were killed, seven terrorists and 368 others injured. Where at least 80 of them critically. The attacks were carried out by the terrorist organization ISIS, which aimed to spread violence and chaos in the French capital. The terrorist attacks of November 13 will be considered the most severe in the history of France.