Memorie.al publishes some archival documents extracted from the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP) where Enver Hoxha’s diary is located, among other things he has kept notes and made analysis by commenting during all the events that took place between Greece and Turkey due to the conflicts that took place on the island of Cyprus populated by two respective ethnicities (Turkish-Cypriots and Greek Cypriots) from 1963 – ’64. How did the communist leader Enver Hoxha describe the events that took place from the conflict on the Mediterranean island, his and Tirana’s official position regarding those events, for which he blamed and blamed official Moscow and Washington. As well as his fear of an eventual military intervention in Albania, which seems to have forced Enver Hoxha to keep the army in combat readiness and to give the relevant orders to the highest chiefs of the Ministry of People’s Defense.
“The monarcho-fascist dictatorship was restored in Greece. The power of the fascist generals, led by King Glücksburg and American imperialism, is restoring terror in Greece, filling the terrible island camps, where communists and ELAS soldiers were tortured and killed for years, and of the Greek Democratic Army. The Greek fascists seized power because the toy of “democratic” elections endangered the monarchy and the immediate interests of American imperialism.
The latter makes the law in Greece and has turned this into its main base in the Mediterranean, from where it oversees and supports its diversionary actions and threatens all the peoples of the Mediterranean basin who disobey it. Greece for the United States of America is the belly of Europe and they have gripped Greece from b… and spin it wherever they want. Even the American allies in NATO, such as Turkey, Italy, etc., are not at all satisfied with what is happening in Greece, because the Greek monarcho-fascist chauvinists will throw megaloid ideas against both Turkey (Cyprus) and against the influence. Italian in the Mediterranean ”. This is what the communist leader Enver Hoxha wrote, among other things, in his diary dated March 10, 1964, regarding the riots that started on the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean, between the two ethnicities, Greeks and Turks, who lived in the country that had declared independence from The British Commonwealth, establishing its Republic with the President, the Greek Archbishop Makarios III, which had come after an agreement between London, Athens, Ankara, and Nicosia, was signed in the same year in Zurich and London.
How did the conflict on the island between the two ethnicities start?
But before we see what Enver Hoxha has written in his diary, which among other things came about the fact that communist Albania had established diplomatic relations with the Turkish Republic in 1957, while 14 years later, in 1971, Tirana officially established diplomatic relations with the Greek state, we are doing a retrospective of the development of events on the island of Cyprus. Thus, while inter-ethnic violence between the two main constituent communities of the island, Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot, had begun as early as 1963-’64, the British military forces that had administered the island until the day of the declaration of independence, were in retreat and they were forced to call for help from the UN Blue Helmets. Meanwhile inter-ethnic fighting on the island would continue for a long time and it would become more and more fierce in 1965-’70, while the Turkish population would be forced to isolate itself in a giant enclave in the northern part of the island, opposite its southern part. which was dominated by the Greek troops of President Makarios. Meanwhile, in this period of events, in the 60s, Greece and Turkey would be involved in two coups, which would bring to power the colonels’ junta, respectively in Turkey in 1960 with leader Cemal Gursel , and in Greece in 1967, with Georgios Papadopoulos. Official Tirana opposes the coups as “instigated by the Americans”, but did not cut off diplomatic relations. In the 1970s, two more coups took place in these countries. Thus, in 1971, in Turkey, Gursel was overthrown by the civil government of Bulent Ecev, while in Greece, in 1973, Papadopoulos was replaced by Dimitrios Ioannides. During this time, tensions in Cyprus culminated in fierce armed clashes between the two ethnic groups, who wanted to keep the island united with the respective states. In 1974, there was a coup in Cyprus, where the liberal archbishop Makarios was to be forcibly replaced by nationalist Nikos Sampson. Nicosia, declared “Enosis” (Official Union with Greece). Meanwhile, official Ankara is alarmed, where Ecevit orders the army to be on alert for any surprises in the situation on the island. After that, on July 20, 1974, the Turkish military forces undertook Operation “Attila”, otherwise known as the Turkish occupation of the northern part of the island. (The northern part of the island is divided by a wall similar to that of Berlin). While these events were taking place (which we will also see from Enver Hoxha’s notes in his diaries), official Tirana is alarmed, fearing an American intervention in the armed conflict in the eastern Mediterranean.
Likewise at this time, Turkish and Greek military forces reach the brink of armed conflict over the disputed area of the Eastern Aegean, the islands and oil-bearing areas between Athens and Ankara. Hoxha tries to play an official loyal policy between the two countries as long as there is no “American intervention” in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean basin. Despite ongoing efforts by governments and various organizations around the world (including after 1990 and Albania), the problem of the division of Cyprus and the disputed Aegean oil-bearing islands and territories between Turkey and Greece still seems unresolved. which the events of the last days show the lesson.
Enver Hoxha’s diary with notes on the Greek-Turkish conflict
MARCH 10, 1964
CYPRUS – NATION OF RIOTS AND INTRIGUERiots continue in Cyprus, while the people, whether Greek or Turkish, are suffering. British, American imperialism, Athens, Ankara, Khrushchev, Tito and others intrigue, speculate on this issue.
28 APRIL 1967
THE GREEK FASCIST REACTION IS GETTING POWER
The monarcho-fascist dictatorship was restored in Greece. The power of the fascist generals, led by King Glücksburg and American imperialism, is restoring terror in Greece, filling the terrible island camps, where communists and ELAS soldiers were tortured and killed for years, and of the Greek Democratic Army. The Greek fascists seized power because the toy of “democratic” elections endangered the monarchy and the immediate interests of American imperialism.
The latter makes the law in Greece and has turned this into its main base in the Mediterranean, from where it oversees and supports its diversionary actions and threatens all the peoples of the Mediterranean basin who disobey it. Greece for the United States of America is the belly of Europe and they have gripped Greece from b… and spin it wherever they want. Even the American allies in NATO, such as Turkey, Italy, etc., are not at all satisfied with what is happening in Greece, because the Greek monarcho-fascist chauvinists will throw megaloid ideas against both Turkey (Cyprus) and the influence. Italian in the Mediterranean.
Of course, the Italians want to maintain the alliance of “centro sinistra”, where the socialists of Nen and Saragat can not accept so easily that the neo-fascists, inspired by the Greek monarcho-fascists and encouraged by their fist, take power, so the government of Moros, shows dissatisfaction with the events in Greece. The Italian government, as a reactionary government, naturally thinks of itself as reactionary. She thinks that the Greek monarcho-fascists will attack Albania as her brother Mussolini attacked it in 1939, so the interests of bourgeois Italy are put at risk. Here there is a real contradiction between Italian fascism and Greek fascism on the one hand and Yugoslav Titoism on the other.
But we count our strength, our organization, our determination, to defend every inch of our socialist homeland. We are not at all afraid of what is happening in Greece, but we do not underestimate the danger at all, so we have taken all measures and whoever touches us will break his head. I ordered the army in the South, North and West to remain vigilant, vigilant and to speed up any engineering work for the defense. For now there is nothing to be alarmed about, why the monarcho-fascists now do not know where they have their head, they have trouble consolidating inside, later provocations against us may resume, but they will always receive lightning answers from us that will destroy any plan and cut off their appetite altogether.
Currently the monarchs are arresting communists, revisionists, “democrats” en masse. News agencies say more than 10,000 people have been arrested, including Manolis Glezos, who today is said to have been sentenced to death. If so we should protest, despite the fact that Glezos is part of the revisionist party, but is known as a fighter against Nazism. I know him personally and he was lied to, like many other Greeks, by Soviet revisionists. The betrayal of the Soviet revisionists has no end. They exiled, tortured good Greek communists, Greek revisionists, advised their comrades and Greek immigrants to enter Greece legally.
Now all those who entered were flattened by Asfalia and he would kill them, torture them, repeating the terrible tragedy of Macronissos. However, all revisionists, Titoists are worried, because what is happening in Greece, shows the defeat of their politics, alliances, coexistence, “friendly” relations, etc. Only heroic Albania is not played by the ball. The fair policy of the Albanian Labor Party shines. Contradictions between wolves will increase, head will eat with each other. They have nothing to do with Albania, because Marxism-Leninism illuminates our path, it will triumph. American imperialism is increasing oppression.
Fascist dictatorships have been established in Europe, in the Federal Republic of Germany, in Spain, in Portugal, in Greece. Modern revisionists, with the Soviets at the helm, have been intimidated, and fear has enslaved them to American imperialism and the reactionary European bourgeoisie. They ask for alms: their peaceful coexistence, but this treacherous coexistence of theirs turns into defeat as our Party predicted. However, we will always be very vigilant, cold-blooded, always keep the gunpowder dry, walk boldly on our revolutionary path, strengthen our socialist homeland, mercilessly expose the imperialists and revisionists. The enemies have nothing to do with us. If they drive us, they will find death. They know well the head of the Albanian communists, the head of the heroic Albanian people.
JULY 20, 1974
DISCHARGE OF TURKISH MILITARY FORCES IN CYPRUS
Turkey landed military forces in Cyprus today. It is understood that the justification was found for this: “To defend the Geneva and Zurich agreements.” (Turkey is one of its guarantors), “to protect the Turkish minority from the Greek coup that overthrew Makarios”, and finally, to protect all Cypriots, the status quo, peace – etc. Full of good words, but in reality, the goal was to conquer Cyprus, which is facing Anatolia and its nose is directed towards the bay of Iskenderun and the military port of Mersin, from where the landing forces started.
The fact is that the Turkish population of Cyprus has never been treated well by the Greeks, it has been constantly persecuted by the Greek Cypriots. Therefore we can lean towards the Turks and we have sided with them, not because the Greeks of megaliths have claims on our homeland, but because the truth is so. When the situation in Cyprus stabilized, our positions were in favor of this status quo. Who ruined this? No doubt: Athens backed by the United States and England.
Chauvinist Athens wanted to annex Cyprus in time, since the priest Makarios and General Grivas fought for ENOS. Makarios was also for ENOS, even this adventurous priest, with a hundred flags in his pocket, was against the Turks, for unification with Greece, then he became against Athens, he was with England and against it, this finally saved him from the nails of ENOS, was in favor of the United States of America, then destroyed it with them, allowed NATO bases on the island, made friends with the Soviet Union, visited China, met Mao and Qian Chin, removed unengaged ”, but slept with him. Priest politician edepsëz.
Of course, Athens could not stand it, so it brought Greek officers and soldiers into Cyprus, and they staged a coup and raised Macarius’ legs. So Greece launched the first aggression, ostensibly from within, to annex the island and the United States to become its lord, for fear of being replaced by Russia, which is hungry for bases in the Mediterranean. But Turkey did not sleep, nor did it ask, nor did it hear, nor did it tremble, but it overcame the water barrier. The others were found with their finger in their mouth. It is good for us that the Greek megali-idea is broken once again. The Soviet Union speaks out against Greece for annexing Cyprus.
But who speaks? The Khrushchevites, who talked with Venizelos (junior) to give Greece Gjirokastra and Korça. Who talks about annexation? Soviet social imperialists who invaded Czechoslovakia, who overthrew Dubcek-Makarios and put Husak-Samson! But it is understandable why they do this, to please Turkey, which is being ruined by the United States, England, etc. Titushka, who is removed as a principle, is also shouting, but we will see how long the friend and ally of Turkey and Greece will shout. For the leadership of Turkey he means a word, as he said “Face to face” about the invasion of Czechoslovakia.
These are all toys of the scum, sold to the American and Soviet imperialists. Those who today are “friends – of the clicks, tomorrow become their enemies, today – take the side of one”, tomorrow find other formulas dictated by the dollar, ruble and sterling. Accounts are made in the UN. In fact things are set outside the UN. Ç’paturpësi! Statements are issued at various gatherings, and bombs and cannons are thrown at the people. You can not take any official position in these situations.
Our position is only “freedom, independence of the people of Cyprus, both Greek and Turkish, true democracy”. But in these situations nothing can be achieved. For the revolution to win, war, a still long war, of the Cypriot people themselves and of all other peoples is needed. Fight against the two superpowers and all their agencies and cliques all over the world. We are strengthening our defenses, we are very vigilant, because the danger of a war is coming around in the Mediterranean and in the Balkans. By surprise nothing will find us and, if danger comes, we will face it successfully and defeat any aggression.
JULY 23, 1974
TO MAINTAIN THE BALANCE OF KINDNESS AS TO THE TURKISH PEOPLE AS WELL AS TO THE GREEK
Comrade Hysni and I saw the article we have prepared for publication tomorrow in the newspaper “Zeri i Popullit”, regarding the situation that has recently arisen in Cyprus. I had thought of and prepared some ideas to add to the article, without repeating and without creating contradictions, but I left them. My goal was to strengthen the public opinion of the Greek people for our kindness at a time when everyone is attacking it. To strengthen the opinion, which has already been formed, towards our wise and prudent policy on the Cyprus issue. I did not find a more appropriate wording for this problem that has political significance, especially in relation to our southern neighbor.
Despite the actions of Greek and Turkish chauvinism, we maintain the balance of kindness towards both the people of Turkey and that of Greece. Even where I mention Dubcek-Makarios and others, it indirectly implies that Greece is to blame for starting the conflict. There I also unmask all the idiots of the Americans and the Soviets, from Tito, Ceausescu and others. The evil in the article, lies in the fact that we do not mention either the Greek attack prepared in time by the fascist chauvinist clique of Athens to carry out ENOS, or the attack of the Turkish chauvinists in response to the Greek attack. We do not mention the two aggressions in Cyprus.
So I finally thought it would be better to stick to the general ideas contained in the article, why if we add the new ideas I am listing here, it can be taken even if we are defending both governments, Turkish and Greek, despite talking about peoples Turkish and Greek, for peaceful coexistence and equal rights in a sincere and harmonious brotherhood of the two communities of the island. It is unfortunate why the truth of things is hidden and it is done for selfish special interests, to please one or the other great state, for opportunism, for servility and for fear.
Well, we Albanians have not had and are not afraid to say openly what we think. The friendly Greek people are being attacked from all sides. We are against these attacks, because it is not the Greek people who are to blame for what is happening, but American imperialism. He, together with English imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism, hatched and incited these intrigues. All three of these lobbies play with the fates of the peoples of the Mediterranean, the Balkans and the world. All three are trying to throw Cyprus into their hands, who to nail Turkey and conquer the straits, who and who to enslave the Greek people, to later turn into a general conflict. This is the great truth. Against these imperialists and social-imperialists the sword must be pointed and not against the Turkish and Greek brotherly peoples.
It is the revisionist and imperialist Soviet Union, the United States of America, the savage and bloodthirsty imperialism that violates the sovereign rights of the peoples, that incites strife and bloodshed among themselves, to better rip and drink them blood. Or are Vietnam, Bangladesh, the Middle East, now Cyprus, etc., etc. not clear? Can we forget the horrors that American imperialism has waged against the peoples? Moscow revisionists are attacking Greece with propaganda. And who does this? Those who invaded and occupied Czechoslovakia, who overthrew Dubcek-Makarios and replaced him with Husak-Samson. The revisionist Soviets ostensibly defend Turkey. Who can eat this lie? No one, much less us Albanians and Turks, with whom we have a sincere friendship, just as it connects us with the Greek people.
We say to the American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialists: keep your hands off Turkey and Greece, leave them alone that they are able to resolve the disputes that have arisen between them, in the understanding and in the interest of both peoples. of them, in the interest of world peace. It is you, the American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialist revisionists, who incited the bloodshed, who caused the bloodshed in Cyprus, and now, you will surely emerge as “saviors of the situation.” They have now begun to praise a certain intriguer named Kissinger; that word is now spreading that “Soviet force” will stabilize the situation. We do not lie.
It is the good will of the Turkish, Greek and Cypriot peoples who stopped the fire. And we believe that it is the will of these peoples, brave and progressive, that will bring peace to Cyprus and in understanding and justice there will be restored its independence and sovereignty, democracy, freedom and coexistence and brotherhood among the Greek people. and Turks of the island. This will be a great and glorious deed and will bring great good, especially to the peoples of the Balkans. with whose fates the great imperialist powers have played, who have killed them and made them hostile to each other to suppress them more easily. But those times are now over./Memorie.al