Memorie.al publishes some historical documents from the fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP with some minutes marked “secret” where it is about the meeting of the Politburo held on 2 and 3 July 1974 with the topic ” THE DANGEROUS AND ENEMY ACTIVITY OF BEQIR BALLUKU ”, where Enver Hoxha and the Politburo started the first criticisms and accusations against the Minister of Defense Beqir Balluku, regarding the preparation of the“ Theses of the Defense Council ”. All the accusations made against Balluk by Enver and the “friends of the Bureau” such as Hysni Kapo, Ramiz Alia, Manush Myftiu, Rita Marko, etc., and how did Beqiri respond to them new.?! How Enver commented on the resignation that Beqir Balluku had asked for and why he linked it to his illness, where among other things he said: “Party propaganda for personalities should always be prudent and not happen like a few months ago that, when I got sick (because I am a human being like everyone else), there were friends who were alarmed and said: “What will we become, if something happens to Comrade Enver!”. Nothing will be done, because the Party is standing, that there are other capable comrades in the leadership who have fought, that our progress is guaranteed by the steely unity of the Party and the leadership.
Follows from the previous number
DANGEROUS AND ENEMY ACTIVITY OF BEQIR BALLUK
Discussion at the meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the ALP
July 2-3, 1974
Comrade ENVER HOXHA: The idea of these “theorists”, according to which, the overwhelming superiority in forces and means over the enemy forces in our offensive action can be realized, as a rule, mainly in his arm and back and especially when they act to isolated, by delivering small, numerous, sudden, lightning strikes, turns our war into a partisan war. “It is difficult or impossible to create an overwhelming advantage against the main forces of the enemy, which are stuck in our defense, to annihilate them at once with a single major blow,” they say. Then, according to you, Beqir, we have in vain this regular army that we have created and trained, which has cost the Party and the people so much sacrifice and blood. We can neither defend the country, as you think, nor stop the enemy, nor counterattack. Then in vain we are getting tired! According to you, let us enter only into partisan warfare.
It seems that these people are not in it at all, neither politically, nor ideologically, nor militarily! Giving major blows in the form of counterattacks and counterattacks with such crucial goals that, according to the drafters of the material, are unattainable, was not based on the principles of the Defense Council Theses, say the authors. But this is not true at all. This idea is based on exactly these Theses that you have with it and is a key idea. I therefore recommend to the comrades of the army to review a little more deeply these theses of the perverts and all the activity where these people could have influenced the army, to review, also, very carefully the regulations.
You are boastful in words, comrade Beqir, while in deeds you are pessimistic, inwardly and in show, you are defeatists since the war has not yet begun. This is how you present yourself in your famous theses that you propose to us, or that you put in the closet and hide. The correct assessment of the situation in concrete conditions, continue the authors of this “work”, matching the subjective with the objective, would lead us to the conclusion not to develop such counterattacks and counterattacks, which would lead to a passive defense, reducing its activity, which is the main requirement of protection. Those who think and say these things are the demagogues of demoralization.
Our theses of counterattacks and counterattacks represent neither passivity nor defeatism, and their “theses”, which seem to be “strict and agile”, are inwardly a pharaoh. With these ideas continues, of course, the “logical” development of the demonstration of their theses, which are in fact antitheses and reprehensible. These they have elevated to “laws of principle”, dictated by the “wisdom” and “skill” of these “enlightened” soldiers. So, if we accept the Theses of the Defense Council, then, according to them by Beqir Balluku, we are playing the game of the enemy, while, if we use the “theses” of these fraudsters, we are on the “Marxist-Leninist” path. In a word, they follow to the end their custom to deceive us.
Regarding the attacks and blows, they continue to say that these are given lightning and are realized in a short time, while others, according to them, are not given lightning!! Others are given with “turtle running” and “rabbit courage”. Come on, come on “what theorists” without a head or with a “pumpkin head”! How much trust do you, Beqir Balluku, have with your comrades in the army, in the leadership and in the Party that have built this army and are educating it with a persistent work?! In one place of the material the authors underline that «… in the basis of the decision, which is the idea of fighting, the main thing should not be the definition of the regions, on the protection of which depends the stability of the defense as a whole, but the forms of fighting, the way the order of partial annihilation of the enemy forces. This, according to them, is a matter of principle and, you know, “very important”, which has to do with the use of the main forces, with the fact that they will be used for the defense of the defense regions or for the development of its activity “.
This means that the defense regions, where we have shed sweat, and the Party has shed wisdom for their preparation, do not matter to them! According to them: “Fight as you can and where you can”. “Considering that the main role is played by the activity …, the main forces of the operational units, – continue Beqiri and his comrades, – should be used completely for the activity, not throwing them even in the occupation and protection of the defense generations. . Consequently, it turns out that the operational construction of operational units in defense, according to them, should consist of certain forces for the protection of belts and areas of defense intended for severe damage to the enemy, to deter and block its main groups and by the main strike forces destined for the delivery of numerous and successive attacks and strikes for the partial annihilation of the enemy forces ».
This, according to them, means that the operational forces fall into a deep sleep, or rather, they have no interest in the protection areas. Beqiri and Spiro Shalesi have these areas in their heads, who defend them with the theories of the Italian Military Academy of Modena or where the latter has learned elsewhere. In the Thesis of the Defense Council, it is emphasized in their material, these blows are called counterattacks. Such a designation, we think, is not correct, because it characterizes the features of the days given by our initiative, with decisive and surprising purposes, not as a measure of counterattack in defense, but as an integral part of the attack. What are these people muttering like this, when we know that strategic counterattack is a process? relatively long, comes as a result of the transition from defense to multiple counterattacks, surprise, lightning and annihilation, with the transition then from counterattacks to counterattacks, thus preparing the transition to strategic counterattacks for its annihilation. In the section on the organization and development of defense operations, the authors of the material, among other things, continue to say that the voluntary forces of popular self-defense can be used to defend the defense regions, in order to bleed heavily with fire and counterattacks. the enemy and to restrain and block his attack, while the main forces of the units kept unattached to the defense of the belts and defense regions be used to deliver successive blows.
According to these “theorists”, the thesis they have devised means that we should deepen the most living and powerful force of the army “to preserve it”, or rather to create defeat or even for them replaced by the voluntary force of self-defense, which has an auxiliary role, but which cannot replace the former. The theses of the Defense Council are very clear about the tasks of the popular self-defense forces. And below, in the same part that deals with the organization of operations in defense, they say: “While the troops that ensure the stability of the defense restrain and block the attack of the enemy … the striking operational forces give the enemy devastating blows”, that, of course, they have to say that too. What do they mean by “restrain and block the enemy forces”?
Do these “theorists” understand it, and it seems to me that they understand it: “Stay, O enemy, so that we may relax and drink a cup of coffee!” They underestimate all the forces in the defensive positions, they have the idea that these are “being sacrificed in vain”, therefore they say: “Leave the defensive positions, come around from the positions of Durrës and overnight be in Dajt or Skuterë”. If we were to leave the organization of defense and the conduct of operations, as Beqiri advises with comrades, even in time of war, the Party must take measures to shoot us now and not tomorrow.
Regarding the construction of our Martial Arts of the People’s War for the further improvement of the organizational structure of our armed forces, the authors say in one place: «… infantry units, to respond to the demands of the striking operational forces, they need to be relieved of heavy weapons and combat techniques and supplemented with young-age effectives in order to be lighter and more maneuverable.” In a word, they want to disarm us with such a view, because according to them, we should turn the operational forces into “bersalier feathers”, teach them their running and powerful heavy weapons. we ostensibly take them forward, “where they’s needed.”
And they do not give any importance to this “where it should be”, because they also turn it into something completely mobile, “mobile”. Have you thought deeply about these things? This is devilish, Beqir Balluku, and the Party does not eat it, because it means handing over heavy weapons to the enemy. Then, while for you everything is mobile, why not throw heavy weapons in the ovens or in the rivers today, since they cannot be withdrawn, so let’s throw them away now, because, according to your thesis, I wanted to the army we have lightly armed. In conclusion, Theses, as can be seen, are the result of a whole experience of our People’s Army, not forgetting the National Liberation War, which, in the conditions of the time when it took place, was the only way to liberate the homeland, to gain power and the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
The theses are an orientation given by the leadership of the Party for the education of the army, for the defense of the socialist homeland from any enemy attack, from any side and at any time it may come. They keep in mind the enemy or enemies with their arsenals of weapons, with their tactics and strategy of warfare, and successfully counter the aggressors of our armed forces, all the military people, with our tactics and strategy of popular warfare. Such are the theses of the Defense Council, Beqir Balluku, and they cannot be joked. Partisan warfare is a great experience not only for those who did not do it, but also for those who did. This should be and should not be forgotten. Those who made the partisan war, not only should not forget this experience, but remember it and use it correctly.
It may seem strange when I say this, but I find that those who are coming up with such theories, have not been able to properly digest that great experience of partisan warfare, from which they did not know what to evaluate, what to take and then what to leave. This, of course, comes as they have had gaps in the National Liberation War. You yourself, Beqir, had gaps in this war, which you should not forget, even these constitute a whole continuum for you. From such gaps these people have not learned lessons. Not only that, but, over time, these gaps and weaknesses have been proven that during the National Liberation War, you have reduced and polished them and turned them into “tactics”, in the complex of right-wing Leninist tactics of partisan warfare.
I have not read the history of the II Brigade, that it did not send me. man, but I have read some comments that have been published about its activity and I am really angry, because in them the situation is presented as if every activity of this brigade shines, as if every action is done wisely, skillfully, with tactics , as if every fight and every blow, even every dispersal or defeat, were done with completely premeditated intentions, even commanded by me or by the General Staff of the National Liberation Army.
I heard that they also sang an anthem to the II Brigade. With these I say I do not want to reduce its value, but in addition to this value to give it as much as it deserves, no more. If we want to acquaint our people and our army with the experience of the National Liberation War, we must tell them the good, the bad, the victories and the mistakes that have been proven during its development. Let us take great care that the exaltations and false statements are absolutely forbidden in the compilation of the histories of the districts, units and wards of the National Liberation Army. The story has to be real, so everywhere you put the dots on i. I emphasize this especially for you, Beqir, or for those who wanted to please you, who, not to say that they raised the II Brigade above the other best brigades, at least appreciated it close to them.
But why did they do that? To please you. We also have such cadres, arrivist elements, who do not want to spoil the fun with the responsible friends, in order to maintain the positions, even try to strengthen these positions in a crooked way and to rise higher, throwing in writings that do non-existent things. In some of these writings the cult of the person has been raised. But these non-existent things cost a lot to the homeland and the Party. We are not allowed to forget Marx’s great teaching on this issue. Such a thing may seem sweet to us at the moment, my name or that of other comrades may be mentioned hour by minute and minute by propaganda, but crossing the border is not right for me or for you. We should all be characterized by simplicity in every case. But, even when it is necessary for one of us to be mentioned, this should be done enough, to be prudent, because here is how it happens. The work done by Beqir Balluku is currently hostile. The party is not afraid to say this and it will definitely say it. She, throughout her life, has never been afraid of the elements that have betrayed her or opposed her.
However, Beqiri’s anti-party activity will make an impression, the very taking of fair party and state measures against him will leave some people confused. Beqir Balluku has submitted his resignation to me two or three times (I will talk about this issue later), but I have emphasized that such a request, even if it is made for real health reasons, it is better to leave it to be judged by the Party, because the resignation has an internal side, but it also has to do with the propaganda made by external enemies. By this I mean that the Party propaganda for personalities should always be prudent and not happen like a few months ago when, when I got sick (because I am a man like everyone else), there were friends who were alarmed and said: “What will we become if comrade Enver suffers!” Nothing will be done, because the Party is standing, that there are other capable comrades in the leadership who have fought, that our progress is guaranteed by the steely unity of the Party and the leadership.
I am like everyone else, a communist, that the Party has given me a responsible task, which I must be correct and determined to perform properly until they have the mind and power. When the time comes for any of us to die, and this time will come, it is natural, then long live the Party, long live the Central Committee and the Political Bureau and so on, why are we sure that the work will always go on again? and better. Of course, these concerns of comrades are rooted in the love that the people show not only for me, but for the entire leadership of the Party. The job is to make this issue clear to the masses of the Party and the people, in the Marxist way, so that in no case do they reach desperate conclusions, but rather have full confidence in the continuity of the Party’s work. .
We have always said this. It is even more harmful and punishable to pump out the opinion about yourself and the brigade that you have led in the ways it has acted in the II Brigade, not from the point of view that something like this will happen to us, that the Party does not allow this, but any communist, including leaders, when throwing the cap, to think first the interest of the Party and the people, then the personal interest, which should never be put above the general interest. We live, fight and work for the great interest of the Party and the people. I moved away from what I touched on a little while ago regarding the gaps that you Beqir had in the National Liberation War, which over time, as I said, you have reduced and illustrated, turning them into a complex of right Marxist-Leninist tactics of partisan warfare, but the Party has never mixed alum with sugar.
It has nothing to do with the strategy and tactics of partisan warfare that from the leadership weakness of the command or the commander, from the panic and from the lack of political uplift, to be shattered and become a ward thread. You know very well that the Party has strongly condemned such actions and at the right time. The other issue that Beqiri and his friends forget is that today Albania is a state and a socialist state. It may seem strange when I say this, but as long as they exclude or minimize frontal defense, it means that they have not properly understood the principle “every inch of the homeland should be protected”, “socialist Albania should be protected”.
Their concept in defending this socialist state, organized and with a modern army on its feet, is to defend this state with partisan warfare. These concepts are very wrong and it is the Defense Council Theses that do not allow us to fall into such mistakes. You can only make mistakes intentionally. In the theses of the Defense Council, what is partisan war is given and should be given correctly. But everything in Theses is inspired by the idea that we should not jump into partisan warfare with our regular army. This is well understood. We must avoid the partisan war to the extreme and fight with all the forces and means we have to destroy the enemy from the first days, and these people think quite differently.
Friends who develop such theories as military-trained people, but military affairs can never be taken in isolation from political and economic situations, from state structures, from the form of the state, and from the ideology that inspires and guides them all. In these matters, too, we cannot ignore all this and other data for the other side, that is, for the enemy side. The Defense Council Theses all take them into account. These “knowledgeable” friends, despite speaking big words, do not want these issues to be clear. Even now that they have all the experience of the Party, they do not want to understand that the next partisan war, although it will retain the principled features of the past partisan war, will change from the beginning not only from the “tactics of attacks and strikes” (I am using their words), but also from many other aspects.
These comrades, because they are not left with arrogance, since they are in leading positions in the army, forget how the partisan war started, how much sweat, blood and great sacrifices it took for the people and the Party until they managed to create squads, battalions, brigades, etc. Let us not forget all this. Not all came, with tens of thousands of people at once, to fill the ranks of the military units of the National Liberation War. This was a long and difficult but heroic process. What can I tell you about him? We have all lived it. And the straight line of the Party brought victory. From the partisan war the People’s Army was created. In those difficult and heroic times of the National Liberation War the Party had nothing, it would all win and win. The partisans had the mountains, here we would conquer the cities and we conquered them.
The partisans did not have “a regular and modern army” from the beginning, but this would be created by war and bloodshed, and we created it. Today, we ask Beqir and others who think like him, is this the case like 33 or 35 years ago? No, Beqiri will answer and I have no doubt about that, but, in reality, when they present their wrong theses, they erase the great reality. But why? Even knowing it, they inadvertently forget that the Party has built today a vast and powerful army, to which it has set a great and realistic goal. All that, as I said above, we did not have when we started the partisan war, we now have steels, built on the basis of Marxist-Leninist ideology. And today to turn this army into a partisan army? No, they say shyly, but the theses they present to us prove the opposite of what they say.
We started the partisan war when the enemy had occupied our homeland. Now we will not leave ground to the enemy. But, even if the enemy will temporarily occupy any particular region, on the ground occupied by him we will carry out actions according to the tactics of partisan warfare. However, even for this way of fighting these comrades have no right to the concepts. The tactical actions of the partisan war will be much higher than those we did during the National Liberation War, because the partisan units will not be formed as then, they are organized today, with everything they need. The people in these wards are politically and ideologically very high, they are militarily trained, they are, in a word, partisans of a different quality, they are, so to speak, partisans of a powerful socialist state, determined soldiers of the Party and the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Do you, Beqir Balluku, not see this big change? In addition, these units in today’s conditions will not fight in isolation, despite the fact that they will be in the enemy’s rear, because next to them they will have a large and powerful army that fights on a wide front and causes the enemy large losses. This time all the people are standing with guns in their hands, this time we do not have reactionary organizations like Balli Kombëtar, Legality and all kinds of quislings to prevent us. Scary, yes, there will definitely be. Some of them we will try to inspire, some traitors may come out, but we will crush them, we will exterminate them. So, how is it that you, Beqir, with your friends are misrepresenting and mistaken these issues that the Party has made clear to us? Do you not think that, if you distort the Party’s teachings on these capital defense issues, you betray the homeland and the Party, you do them incalculable damage? These are not small issues, such as the organization of a unit or the addition of a new weapon to this or that unit, which also have their special importance for the defense, but from the correct or incorrect application of the principles of the Party and of the Thesis of the Defense Council for the defense of the country depends the fate of the homeland and of socialism. Sick and punishable performances should never be confused with efforts to supplement, correct or improve a directive. Not! The former has their source in megalomania, ambitions, underestimation of the forces of the homeland and overestimation of the enemy, which arouses fear and panic in these people /Memorie.al