The third part
Memorie.al publishes some archival documents extracted from the Central State Archive in Tirana (fund of the former Central Committee of the ALP), where Enver Hoxha’s political diary is in the period March-April 1981, when mass demonstrations and protests began of the people of Kosovo, who rose up to demand their legitimate rights and freedoms, just as the other nationalities and nations that made up the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had and enjoyed. The entire political diary of the main leader of communist Albania, where he and the official Tirana of that time, closely followed the events in Kosovo and spoke openly in public, coming out openly in defense of our Kosovar brothers across the border who lived for centuries in the lands their ethnic groups, who rose up to demand their legitimate rights and freedoms as they had and enjoyed the other nationalities and nations of Yugoslavia at the time, and accusing official Belgrade of the discriminatory policies pursued by the Titoist regime until at the time against Kosovo and the entire Albanian population living under Yugoslavia, and also accusing the Kosovo leadership of being “pro-Tito”, and “sold to the Belgrade leadership”.
“According to news agencies, in Pristina and Podujeva, yesterday and today, students, who were joined by workers, erupted in demonstrations and other clashes, more furious than the first. The situation has become very honorable. Yugoslav authorities surrounded Pristina with tanks. Large police and Serbian militia forces have arrived in Kosovo from Belgrade. The state of siege was declared, the circulation in groups was stopped and the lakes of the Titoite Lacanians began, from Fadil Hoxha, Xhavit Nimani, Asllan Fazllija and others. What they did not say against the demonstrators, they used all the words contained in the Titoist dictionary, made the dirtiest accusations: “Albanian nationalists”, “irredentists”, “informbureaux”, “agents of imperialism”, “ballists”, etc. After swearing and accusations against Albanian students, hosanara for Tito, for titism, for self-administration and for “Kosovo’s victories”. After the hosanars for titism, deceptive promises “we will do this”, “we will do it”, “there are difficulties, but the world crisis is to blame” etc. Finally, numerous arrests and threats of even greater retaliation. “It is clear that Kosovars are oppressed, miserable, bloodied by Serbs and Titoism.”
This is what the former main leader of communist Albania, Enver Hoxha, wrote in his diary of April 3, 1981, focusing on the events in Kosovo, which at that time was the Autonomous Province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. , where only a few months after the death of Marshal Josif Broz Tito (May 4, 1980), who ruled the country for almost 35 years since the end of World War II, in the Yugoslavia he left behind, the riots would begin. such as the mass demonstrations and protests of the people of Kosovo, who rose up to demand their legitimate rights and freedoms, just as the other nationalities and nations that made up the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had and enjoyed passed until the calls “Kosovo Republic”.
As it is already known, which we will see from these archival documents where the political diary of Enver Hoxha is located, the main leader of communist Albania and official Tirana, closely followed the events in Kosovo and spoke publicly, coming out openly. in defense of our Kosovar brothers across the border living for centuries in their ethnic lands and accusing official Belgrade of the discriminatory policy it had pursued until then against Kosovo and the entire Albanian population living under Yugoslavia, and also accusing the leadership of Kosovo as “pro-Titoist”, and “sold to the leadership of Belgrade”.
But contrary to what he said in words, he never did it with deeds and the attitude that official Tirana held towards the events of Kosovo in the spring of ’81, seems to have been just enough for the facade and only for public consumption in the international arena, as the regime Enver Hoxha’s communist regime from 1949, when official Tirana broke off relations with Marshal Tito’s Yugoslavia, until the end of the 1980s, pursued a policy towards Kosovars who came to Albania to escape the persecution of the Titoist regime. even more cruel to them, imprisoning, torturing and interning them, with the accusations of “UDB agents”! Likewise, although in the events of the spring of 1981 and onwards, official Tirana ostensibly supported the demonstrations of the people of Kosovo and their demands for a “Kosovo Republic”, Enver Hoxha would never want that to become a reality. because in a way, two Albanian states would be created, where Kosovo would become a factor and Albania under his leadership, would be defactorized in the international arena. In this context, immediately after those events, official Tirana intensified the persecution and violence against Kosovars who were in Albania, arresting and sentencing to long prison terms some Kosovar intellectuals, such as: Selim Kelmendi, Estref Kelmendi, Shefqet Kelmendi, Namik Lucin, etc., who were arrested in 1983, accused of “attempting to assassinate the main leader, Enver Hoxha, during his visit to the Museum” Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu “in Kruja in 1980”.
And all this was done to lower the reputation of Kosovars and Kosovo in the eyes of the Albanians of the homeland. However, these remain the object of analysis that are not in the focus of this article, where we are publishing only the political diary of Enver Hoxha, which he kept in that period of time, which Memorie.al publishes for the first and complete time.
Followed by the last number
Enver Hoxha’s political diary on the events of demonstrations and protests of the people of Kosovo in the spring of 1981
This is a terrible story for the peoples who want to live free and build socialism, as much as the form of the United States of America that exploits not only the different peoples living in America, but also other peoples of world. Therefore, gentlemen theorists of “Borba”, there are “scales” in chauvinism and different types, regardless of their shape and size, regardless of masks and pompous words. Nationalism, chauvinism and pan-Slavism are doomed from any patch to come, regardless of whether those who cultivate them are big or small, but greater nationalism and chauvinism is more dangerous. Let us not forget this. All these evils must be fought, must be uprooted, but this can never be done except from the positions of Marxism-Leninism. There is no other way. We are repeating once again that for 10-15 people so called by the Yugoslav leadership as “reactionaries, chauvinists and irredentists”, not so many armies, militias, udbas, tanks and planes could be sent to Kosovo, nor be killed. so many people were wounded with firearms and a state of siege was imposed throughout the province of Kosovo.
You are afraid to tell the truth and this is bad for you, because the people of Kosovo know this, after participating in the demonstration themselves. With ten or fifteen people, whom you consider “counter-revolutionaries”, etc., it is not easy to lie to a brave and mature people, such as the Albanian people living in different parts of Yugoslavia, nor to lie to the workers, the peasants, students and intelligent, heroic and conscious intelligence about the life and destiny of their nation. If the Belgrade leadership does not see the problems at the root and solve them straight and boldly, it will surely bring a lot of trouble to itself. We see with regret that when we tell you the truth, you feel very bitter. Why? Do you not want us to brag about those evil acts you committed in Kosovo? Or did you want us to be silent? Why didn’t we slander a year ago, or even a month ago that the turmoil was spreading in Kosovo? Yugoslav leaders claim that the turmoil appears to have “softened vigilance”. You cannot lie to anyone with this, because the dissatisfaction in the areas where Albanians live is great and obvious, therefore those turmoils do not seem for the reasons that you try to point out, but for what you seek to hide.
Through countless speeches by Yugoslav leaders and their press, open threats are being made against the Albanians of Yugoslavia for the future. Do not follow this dangerous path! You, if you want, continue to take our truths for granted, they accused, if you will succeed, for interfering in your internal affairs on our part, but this does not change the sick situation in the Socialist Republic at all. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The chronic disease that exists in you does not come from the legal rights demanded by the Albanians living in Yugoslavia within the laws of the constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but from other injustices and other deep weaknesses in the Federation and outside the borders of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo… We write not to provoke controversy and throw gasoline on the fire, but we want to express our desire and readiness for the further development of good neighborly relations, because this is in the interest of both parties.
The Albanian factor in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (we affirm this objectively and not in a partisan spirit, or “great Albanian”, “chauvinist”, “irredentist”, as the Yugoslav leaders claim for us) has been the most politically despised factor, economically and culturally-educationally, but the most patient, smartest and most realistic factor in the political-economic chaos where post-World War II Yugoslavia was plunged, a chaos that especially terribly burdened the Albanians. No Yugoslav politician paid attention to this important factor. Why? The Albanian element, in the skirmish of Yugoslav politicians, was a plan that they could move as they wished and do whatever they wanted with it. This is confirmed by the whole post-war situation in Yugoslavia. There is no denying that in the National Liberation War of the peoples of Yugoslavia, even the Albanian population living in their lands in Yugoslavia fought heroically fraternally with them and for a better future.
During the war, the borders of Yugoslavia were defined by AVNOJ and reaffirmed after the war. In this “union-brotherhood”, in this “socialist Yugoslavia”, in this federation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, what rights were recognized to the Albanians? None. They were divided, Kosovo remained an integral part of Serbia, Albanians were not given Albanian schools, rights or status, and their economic development was not heeded at all. Albanians even after the war continued to live in misery both politically and economically. The policy pursued by Tito-Kardeli and Rankovi ((and the facts are well known) has been not only wrong towards the Albanians, but also savage and exterminating. The Albanians endured, but did not bow down or rise up, nor did they demonstrate against the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It is true that the people of Yugoslavia made the revolution. But after the war, their revolution kept the old quarrels and quarrels inside, kept disguised, hidden, like coals burning under the ashes, the rivalries between Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, despite the fact that the people there fought against the Serbian Chetniks and Ustashas. Croats and they physically defeated them. Their ideology and spirit that would be manifested, as it was later manifested in different forms, but with almost the same content, was not systematically cleansed, this time covered with the cloak of “socialism”, of “union-brotherhood” and the “equal rights” of the peoples that made up Yugoslavia.
The heroic struggle of the peoples of Yugoslavia could not but arouse legitimate pride, but it did not fail to turn it from a Yugoslav leadership into a massive Yugoslav megalomania and “chauvinism”, to point out that almost only they fought, only they sacrificed, only thanks to them did other people’s fight and set an example. All this was transformed into a “sense of superiority” that did not bear the smell of Marxism-Leninism at all. Thus, began and continued to degenerate the Yugoslav revolution. The worm was inside the “red apple”, it eroded the revolution and, to justify it, blamed Stalin, the Soviet Union, its true Leninist system and the ideology that had led and built this system, Marxism-Leninism. The policy of Tito-Kardel-Rankovi–Gjilas reached the rift and it is known who was to blame. But neither Stalin nor the Soviet Union raised their hand against Yugoslavia, nor did they throw tanks, armies or rifles against the Yugoslavs. Tito and his comrades were made by the international bourgeoisie, the heroes of the day anti-Stalinist and anti-Soviet. Their megalomania increased tenfold and they set to work to change the state system and to prove that in this basic direction they had to differ from the system of the Soviet Union.
A supposedly new, situation-appropriate interpretation of Marx’s theory was constructed to explain “his system of administration”, to divert the socialist system to a camouflaged capitalist system, to create a “genius world politics of countries”. unengaged”, and to legally prepare the warm bed for the foreign capitals of the world bourgeoisie and its way of life, thought and action. All of these are well known. The Labor Party of Albania condemned and unmasked all these anti-Marxist and counter-revolutionary deviations, in the interest of the Albanian people, the peoples of Yugoslavia and the revolution. The course of this fierce political-ideological war between our two neighboring states made our two parties’ enemies. We Albanians were first called and accused of playing the game of the Yugoslavs, then the Soviets and later the Chinese. How all this was unmasked by the Marxist-Leninist life and heroic struggle of the Albanian Labor Party and the Albanian state, they said that we would die, we would collapse, we would shake their hand and we would be put under the yoke of capitalism world. None of this happened and will not happen.
The bourgeoisie and world capitalism, modern revisionism and reformism cannot understand this Albanian phenomenon, which for us is clear, that we remain faithful to the proletarian revolution and the Marxist-Leninist theory. What situation created the counter-revolution in Yugoslavia of “self-governing socialism”? The system changed and this change aroused old rivalries and hegemony, Serbian hegemony, on the one hand, and Croatian-Slovenian, on the other. These are the two miners of socialism in Yugoslavia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and not Albanian “chauvinism”. The latter is used as a cover to cover the great Serb and Croatian-Slovenian chauvinism. The struggle for hegemony and power between these two clans is raging fiercely. The Croatian-Slovenian clan dominates the Serb one. Tito was removed as moderator, but he was a supporter of Croatian-Slovenian hegemony. The Rankovic group (especially the killer of Albanians) Gjilas, Nikezic-Popovic and Vukmanovic, were liquidated by the Tito-Kardel-Bakaric-Dolanc clan. Tito’s clan lived in great luxury, he took the lion’s share of Yugoslavia’s income and ate as much as he wanted from the debts of American imperialism and other capitalist states.
It is understandable that such a situation does not benefit the Serbian clan and it struggles to regain true supremacy in the face of inequality in politics, economy, etc. Around these two rival clans revolve the other poor republics. All with their partisan attitudes, who more and who less, add fuel to this great fire that exists in this Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which has never stabilized. The only positive and impartial factor in this Federation is the Albanian factor, which, being economically poorer, more patient and politically neglected in a “self-governing socialist” system, within the constitution, demanded the status of Republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia”. Is this request a divisive factor of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or are they the great Serbo-Croatian-Slovenian rivalries? It is more than obvious that these are the latter. What are the reasons that the demonstrations took place in Kosovo, we openly expressed our opinion and we do not waver in our thoughts.
The Yugoslav leadership and press blamed the Kosovo Albanian people, then accused the Albanian Labor Party and the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania, and with them the Ustashas, Chetniks and Ballists in Europe and America, and, to close the cycle, put us all in a bag, thinking lightly that they had solved the riddle, put it before the world opinion on a plate to eat. Nobody eats this soup that the Yugoslavs cook. The real reasons are hidden, so they are fraught with many dangers for the peoples of Yugoslavia and for the peoples of the Balkans. We do not hide our thoughts. The causes of the turmoil that occur, and may resemble others, must be found and looked at realistically and must be avoided calmly within Yugoslavia and not only in Kosovo, but especially in the other republics of Yugoslavia. We, briefly, said these above and noted this condition. What about the external factors, we ask the Yugoslav leaders, have a hand in weakening the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and creating rivalries? Yugoslav “politicians” not without purpose did not scratch this great wound.
In these situations of international crisis, not only economic, but also political, in these aggressive warlike rivalries between American imperialism and Soviet revisionism, do the latter have a hand in weakening the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in promoting Serbian and Croatian chauvinism? -slovenomadh? For us these are, even the main ones. If there is a smart and realistic Yugoslav politician, he sees this situation, but hides it. Why is this dangerous situation hidden? It is hidden that Tito’s Yugoslavia is not “independent”, but dependent on these great powers. Tito’s theory of “non-engaged” countries was empty, it was a fallacy. This is what life has shown and continues to show. Yugoslavia cannot live without debts, it works and cannot pay even the percentages of billions of dollars in loans. With this economic dependence there is no doubt that the political, hegemonic and strategic interests of both superpowers are intertwined. The Croatian-Slovenian clans have the external support of one imperialism, the Serbian clan of another. Through them both great powers seek to gain strong positions in Yugoslavia. The mirror of Poland resembles that of Yugoslavia with their special characteristics. The United States and its people are on the offensive, especially in Europe, which interests us more in this problem.
Soviet revisionism and its satellites, especially the Bulgarians, are also on the offensive. The peoples of Yugoslavia, our Yugoslav brotherly peoples, the masters of NIN magazine, must be saved from these open and secret enraged enemies. And we are repeating to you once again, for the hundredth time, that the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania and the Albanian people living in their lands in Yugoslavia are neither the enemies of the Yugoslav peoples nor of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. You, Yugoslav politicians, if you want, do not listen to us, if you want, continue to slander, but we are convinced that the Yugoslav people will listen and justify our thoughts and feelings, the brotherly feelings of the Albanians.
18 APRIL 1981
I gave Comrade Ramiz new, expanded theses, or rather a new article, against the Yugoslav chauvinist revisionists for the further development of events in Kosovo and for the unmasking of their slanderous propaganda against our country.
22 APRIL 1981
WHO PROMOTES FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN THE PEOPLES OF YUGOSLAVIA?
We sent the article to the newspaper “Zeri i Popullit” entitled “Who incites enmity between the peoples of Yugoslavia”? to publish it in its tomorrow issue. In this article, the second we are publishing in a few days, we emphasize that we do not intend to stir up controversy, nor to throw gasoline on the fire, but we are obliged to respond to the anti-Albanian campaign that has currently erupted in Yugoslavia and to We openly express our thoughts on the events in Kosovo.
26 APRIL 1981
THE YUGOSLAV LEADERSHIP HAS COMPLETELY LOST TORUAN
The Yugoslav leadership is mad, it has completely lost the toruan as well as the compass of leadership: The just and legitimate demands of the Kosovars shocked the Titoist Yugoslavia so much that they immediately saw the instability, contradictions, confusion and rivalries that exist in this so-called democratic country., in its central leadership, in republics and municipalities. The Yugoslavia of Versailles, that of the kings, the Titoist Yugoslavia, is an artificial state, with colorful blankets sewn with white thread. The national liberation war did not bring any change in this country, only it was liberated from the occupation and Yugoslavia was given a republican constitution, to which was later added the name of federal-popular, and then socialist. Within a few decades, Titoism turned Yugoslavia into a capitalist country, with a new “essential” content and designation of “self-governing socialism.” In this country, the rivalries between different chauvinisms are great, alive and growing. The biggest and most corrosive rivalry, the main source of a great danger of boiling, which they try to cover with smoke, is especially that between Serbs and Croat-Slovenes.
This dominant Serbo-Croatian-Slovenian rivalry promotes other rivalries in Yugoslavia of many peoples and nations, artificially unified. Tito replaced Serbian King Karadjordjevic. Like this, Tito relied on foreigners, but with one change, Karadjordjevic formed alliances, while Tito associated with foreigners “without alliances”, but with heavier political-economic chains and way of life. Tito, as a small monarch, yes, being removed as a great monarch, fantasized about state organization, domestic and foreign policy. From centralization he passed to decentralization, from administration to “self-administration”. His slogan was: obura eat, obura get rich, obura exploit and strip the people individually and collectively as a republic. So, the eldest ate the portion of the younger. Titoism from the slogan-facade “unity-fraternity”, turned into differentiation, discrimination, distrust, economic, political rivalries between the republics, peoples and nations that make up Yugoslavia. What was the result? The Croat-Slovenes became richer than the Serbs, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro remained miserable brothers, Kosovo and the Albanians remained in the sun, salt and at the bottom of the scale.
As long as King Tito lived, he maneuvered: help one, hit the other, promised paradise to one, made the grave to the other, and so on. When this king died, “Long live the king” was chanted again, but this time there was no longer a king with one head, but a “king” with many heads and a wretched, divided “kingdom” drowned in debt and who lives with the expedient. There is no inspiration, no ideal to inspire the people of Yugoslavia. Socialism is false, “union-fraternity” is false, “self-government” is also false, patriotism has turned into nationalism and chauvinism and democracy into terrorism and fascism, the policy of “non-engagement” is in fact the policy of “commitment”. This famous state is, therefore, in a total political-ideological-economic-moral and military banker. And the most beautiful of all, the most “genius”, the “sharpest”, the “smartest” and the most “original” opinion of the Yugoslav leadership is that this catastrophe was “caused” by the Albanians living in their lands in Yugoslavia., Kosovo Albanians, or a handful of “Albanian chauvinist-nationalist-irredentist” organizers.
This is the internal factor. The external factor is the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania, the Labor Party of Albania, the newspaper “Zeri i Popullit”, are the cultural relations of Albania with Kosovo! Thus, everything was explained, the “Trojan Horse” was found and we were able to destroy it, the culprit was found and we were able to fight it. Now the great Yugoslav Serb choir against Albanians, against Kosovars, against the Albanian Labor Party and the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania is so big, so noisy that it has become ridiculous and no one, in every sense of the word, believes what the Yugoslavs say. But how can this hysteria, this stupidity, this political blindness of the Yugoslavs be explained? They know that the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania is not for undermining the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that socialist Albania has never made territorial claims, that socialist Albania is strongly determined against the United States of America and the Soviet Union, which are potential aggressors against our two countries.
They also know that Albanians living in Yugoslavia cannot but fight side by side with the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania when Yugoslavia is attacked. The Yugoslav leadership knows all this. She knows that we have no hand in what happens in Kosovo, that what happened there was the result of the anger of the Albanians caused by the Yugoslavs themselves, they know that the demand of Kosovars for a republic was legal. Then why this nonsense? Clear. The contradictions, which I pointed out at the beginning, are boiling, the cauldron is boiling, a “soup” has exploded in Kosovo, others will burst, until the cauldron lid is blown up. The Yugoslav leadership will hide this situation, it will save time, the accounts are being settled with a knife in the teeth, but in the meantime, it says: Let’s hit the Albanians hard, so that. we can hit others later too. The military dictatorship that is being prepared has found a “Turkish head”, the Albanians. But the Titoists forget that this Albanian head has withstood the storms and has always won./Memorie.al